To investigate the effect of Bunao capsule on learning, memory and antioxidative abilities of rats with Alzhheimer’s disease (AD) induced by D-galactose combined with amyloid β-protein (Aβ25-35), and provide experimental basis for the prevention and treatemtn of AD.Methods
A total of 90 SD male rats were randomly divided into model control group, piracetam group, sham operated group,Bunao capsule (0.79, 1.58, 3.15 g·kg-1) groups (n=15 each).The rat models were established by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose and injection of Aβ25-35 into the bilateral lateral cerebral ventricle.Then rats were given corresponding drugs by gavage in different groups for 8 weeks.The learning and memory abilities were meseured by Morris water maze test.The morphology of brain cells was observed by HE staining.The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the brain tissues were measured by spectrophotometry.Results
The target quadrant residence time was (20.39±7.75)s and (20.82±5.09)s in Bunao capsule (1.58, 3.15 g·kg-1) groups, which were significantly increased as compared with that in model control group [(12.35±6.95) s](P<0.01).Brain nerve cell morphology in Bunao capsule (1.58, 3.15 g·kg-1) groups was obviously improved as compared with that in model control group, and was close to that in sham operated group.The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were significantly increased, and MDA contents decreased in Bunao capsule groups as compared with those in model control group (P<0.01).Conclusion
Bunao capsule can dose-dependently improve the learning, memory and antioxidative abilities of AD rats.The mechanism may involve upregulation of antioxidative enzyme activities and removal of oxidative products.
To study the compatible stability of the carbohydrate-electrolyte injection and commonly used vitamin-electrolyte injections.Methods
By simulating clinical use of medicines, the carbohydrate-electrolyte injection and various vitamin-electrolyte injections were mixed respectively.The content of sodium acetate was measured by HPLC, and changes in appearance, pH value and insoluble particles of the injections were observed.Results
At room temperature, the compatibility solutions showed no significant changes in appearance, pH value, the number of insoluble particles and the content of sodium acetate within 8 h.Conclusion
The carbohydrate-electrolyte injection is compatible with commonly used vitamin-electrolyte injections, and the admixtures are stable within 8 h at room temperature.
Urinary tract infection complicated with urinary tract calculi (lithangiuria) is one of the most common diseases causing serious urinary sepsis and septic shock.Recent studies show that the accurate diagnosis, rational use of antibiotics and timely treatment of complications are the key to treatment success.In this article, the latest progress and the treatment strategies for urinary tract infections complicated with lithangiuria are explored.
To investigate the effects of four interior-warming drugs (galangal, cinnamon, evodia rutaecarpa, and dried ginger) on the tension of ileum smooth muscle and Ca2+-ATPase on the cell membrane in rabbits.Methods
The effects of galangal, cinnamon, evodia rutaecarpa, and dried ginger were examined on normal ileum smooth muscle, in vitro intestinal muscle contraction caused by acetylcholine (ACh), barium chloride (BaCl2) and histamine (His), and ACh-induced calcium release by using BL-420E+ biological signal collection and processing system.The average tension was measured within 1 min before delivery and within 3 minutes after the treatment, and the inhibition rate was calculated according to the average tension value.The effects of sera containing galangal, cinnamon, evodia rutaecarpa, and dried ginger on Ca2+-ATPase activity on the cell membrane of the intestinal smooth muscle were examined by phosphorus method.Results
Galangal, cinnamon, evodia rutaecarpa, and dried ginger at high concentrations could restrain in vitro intestinal contraction in normal circumstances (P<0.05 or P<0.01).Significant inhibitory effects on intestinal contraction caused by ACh, His and BaCl2 were found in low, medium and high concentration groups (P<0.01).There was a dose-effectiveness relationship between the inhibition rate and final drug concentrations.The ACh-induced intracellular and extracellular calcium dependent contraction were significantly inhibited by the four interior-warming drugs (P<0.05 or P<0.01).The Ca2+-ATPase activities were (0.384± 0.070), (0.302±0.016), (0.307±0.016), (0.296±0.016), (0.313±0.003) U·mg-1, respectively, in intestinal smooth muscle in normal control group and high concentration groups of galangal, cinnamon, evodia rutaecarpa, and dried ginger (P<0.01).Conclusion
Interior-warming drugs may relax intestinal smooth muscle by reducing the intracellular calcium release and the extracellular calcium inflow via receptor-controlled calcium channels, and inhibiting the Ca2+-ATPase activity in smooth muscle.
To investigate the different components of Acorus tatarinowii and Polygala tenuifolia (volatile oil, aqueous extract) on the expression of phosphorylated Tau protein at site Ser396 and Tau-5 in the hippocampus of rats with Alzheimer's disease (AD).Methods
Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: normal control group, model control group, low-, middle-, and high-dose groups of volatile oil of Acorus tatarinowii and Polygala tenuifolia, and low-, middle-, and high-dose groups of aqueous extract of Acorus tatarinowii and Polygala tenuifolia.The subacute aging model was established by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose (D-gal).Rats were given different components of Acorus tatarinowii and Polygala tenuifolia (crude drug dosage, 0.6,1.2,1.8 g·kg-1) in experimental groups, and 0.9% sodium chloride solution in normal control group and model control group, by gavage for 28 days.The levels of phosphorylated Tau protein at site Ser396 and Tau-5 were detected in hippocampal tissues by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.Results
The levels of phosphorylated Tau protein at site Ser396 were significantly enhanced in the model control group, as compared with those in normal control group (P<0.01).The relative expression levels of Tau protein Ser396 were 3.83±0.10,3.35±0.01,3.11±0.01,2.75±0.03,2.93±0.01,2.55±0.07,and 2.23±0.08 in model control group, low-, middle-, and high-dose groups of volatile oil of Acorus tatarinowii and Polygala tenuifolia, and low-, middle-, high-dose groups of aqueous extract of Acorus tatarinowii and Polygala tenuifolia,respectively.Two components of Acorus tatarinowii and Polygala tenuifolia could dephosphorylate Tau protein Ser396 to vary degrees in a dose-dependent manner.The aqueous extract component was slightly better than the volatile oil component, especially in the high-dose group (P<0.01).But Tau-5 did not change significantly after treatment with Acorus tatarinowii and Polygala tenuifolia (P>0.05).Conclusion
Acorus tatarinowii and Polygala tenuifolia could promote the dephosphorylation of Ser396 site of Tau protein in the hippocampus of AD rats, with the aqueous extract component having better effects.
To investigate the in vitro effect of Shenju lotion agaisnt Trichomonas vaginalis in order to provide clues for its clinical application.Methods
Shenju lotion was formulated into different concentrations (400.00, 200.00, 100.00, 50.00, 25.00, 12.50, 6.25 mg·mL-1) with liver extracts.The morphology and movement of Trichomonas vaginalis treated with different concentrations of Shenju lotion in vitro for 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, or 24 h were observed and the mortality was calculated.The effects against Trichomonas vaginalis were compared between Jieeryin lotion and Shenju lotion at the same concentrations.Results
Shenju lotion could significantly inhibit and kill clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro and the lowest effective concentration was 50.00 mg·mL-1.There was no significant difference in the mortality between Shenju lotion and Jieeryin lotion (P>0.05).Conclusion
Shenju lotion has obvious effects against Trichomonas vaginalis.
To investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms of ATIC and GSTP1 with plasma concentrations and adverse reactions of high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).Methods
A total of 70 peripheral blood samples were obtained from ALL children for extraction of genome DNA.The gene polymorphisms of ATIC T26293C and GSTP1 A313G locus were examined by using PCR and direct sequencing.Enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) was employed to determine the plasma concentration of MTX in 48 h.Clinical data of patients were collected during HD-MTX chemotherapy, and the adverse reactions were statistically analyzed.The associations of ATIC and GSTP1 genotypes with MTX plasma concentration and adverse reactions were investigated.Results
There were genetic polymorphisms at the SNP of ATIC T26293C and GSTP1 A313G.At the SNP of ATIC T26293C, the percentages of TT, CT and CC genotypes in ALL children were 4.35%, 39.13% and 56.52%, respectively, and the frequencies of T and C alleles were 23.91% and 76.09%.At the SNP of GSTP1 A313G, the percentages of AA, GA and GG genotype were 68.57%, 28.57% and 2.86%, respectively, in ALL children.The frequencies of A and G alleles were 82.86% and 17.14%, respectively.No statistically significant difference was found in the ratio of blood MTX concentration to MTX dose at 48 h between children with different genotypes (P>0.05).In the GSTP1 A313G site, genotypes that induced the gastrointestinal reactions in the order from low to high were AA, GA, GG, and there was a significant association between gene polymorphism and gastrointestinal side effects (P<0.05).In the GSTP1 A313G site, genotypes that induced myelosuppression in the order of low to high were GG, AA, GA, and a significant association was noted between gene polymorphism and myelosuppression (P<0.05).Conclusion
There are significant associations between GSTP1 A313G polymorphism and gastrointestinal side effects or myelosuppression after HD-MTX chemotherapy in ALL children.
To investigate the pathogen characteristics of perforated appendicitis in children and the perioperative use of antimicrobials in order to provide evidence for the rational use of perioperative antibiotics.Methods
The perioperative usage of antibiotics was analyzed to determine the reasonableness of antimicrobial use in children with perforated appendicitis who were discharged from July 2011 to August 2014, based on “guidelines of clinical use of antibiotics” and results of bacterial culture.Results
Inflammatory secretions obtained from 126 children (126/149) were sent for examination and the examination rate was 84.56%.A total of 117 cases were found positive for cultured pathogens, and the detection positive rate was 92.86%.Three types of bacteria ranking the first three places were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Citrobacter freundii.The utilization rate of antibacterial agents was 100.00%, with a dominant use of cephalosporins and nitrate imidazoles.Rational use of antimicrobial agents was found in 144 cases (accounting for 96.64%).Conclusion
The major pathogen in perforated appendicitis is still Escherichia coli, which is highly sensitive to commonly used antibiotics, and drug-sensitivity testing results can help guide the treatment programs and antibiotics selection.
To introduce a pharmaceutical care method based on population pharmacokinetics (PPK) and Bayesian method.Methods
A predictive model for individualized vancomycin dosing was established based on the JPKD-Bayesian software and a PPK model according to the intervenous drop infusion of vancomycin in Chinese children.Individualized dosage regimen of vancomycin was devised for a neonate with septicemia caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) using the predictive model.Results
The model prediction error of the trough concentration of vancomycin was 0.8 mg·L-1, and the weighted residual (WRES) was 8.7%, and thus the predictive accuracy of the model was satisfactory.The MRSE infection in this patient was effectively controlled following individualized vancomycin dosage regimen according to the model predicted results, and there were no vancomycin-caused adverse reactions.Conclusion
Application of advanced pharmaceutical knowledge such as PPK contributes to clinical medication, and it can promote the quality of pharmaceutical care provided by clinical pharmacists.
To examine the relationship between the A118G polymorphism of mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene and analgesic effects of oxycodone hydrochloride in patients with severe cancer pain.Methods
Fifty-nine patients with severe cancer-induced pain were divided into 3 groups by genotype (AA group, AG group and GG group, 23, 28, 8 patients, respectively).They were orally treated with oxycodone hydrochloride sustained-release tablets, and the treatment dosage and adverse reactions (including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, constipation, etc.) were compared between groups.Results
The variation of allele frequencies (118G) was 37.3%.The dosage of oxycodone hydrochloride sustained-release tablets used in AA, AG and GG groups was (27.0±14.3), (36.4±22.5) and (55.0±35.1) mg, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant between groups (P=0.01).On the part of adverse reactions, the incidence of nausea and vomiting, dizziness, constipation was 28.8%, 22.0%, and 52.5%, in AA, AG and GG groups, respectively, and there was no significant difference between groups (P>0.05).Conclusion
The analgesic effect of oxycodone hydrochloride is affected by opioid receptor gene polymorphism.Patients with G allelic variation (AG or GG genotype) require larger doses of oxycodone hydrochloride than those with AA genotype.However, adverse reactions are not associated with polymorphism.
To select antiplatelet regimen according to the results of CYP2C19 gene polymorphism, and then compare the major adverse cardiac events,bleeding events and the incidence of adverse reactions between two antiplatelet regimens.Methods
Two hundred and seven patients who were diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and underwent elective PCI were tested for CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism, and 94 cases with CYP2C19 intermediate metabolism were randomly divided into high-dose clopidogrel group and ticagrelor group (47 cases each).High-dose clopidogrel group was given clopidogrel 150 mg once daily,and ticagrelor group ticagrelor 180 mg twice daily.Major adverse cardiac events, bleeding events and the incidence of adverse reactions were observed between two groups one month later.Results
The average declined platelet aggregation rate was significantly different between the two groups[(6.27±5.65)% and (12.30±10.23)%, P<0.01];Adverse drug reactions ,the incidence of bleeding events and major adverse cardiac events of two groups were not significantly different.Conclusion
Ticagrelor has stronger antiplatelet aggregation effects than high-dose clopidogrel.There is no difference in short-term clinical outcomes between the two groups.
To observe the therapeutic effect of hydrogel dressing for alprostadil-induced phlebitis.Methods
Forty-three patients with alprostadil-induced phlebitis were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group (n=22), in which hydrogel dressing was applied to affected area, and control group (n=21), in which mucopolysaccharide polysulfate cream was used to coat the surface of the skin.The curative effects were observed and compared between the two groups.Results
The therapy effect on day 7 was superior to that on day 3 in both groups.The curative rate was 86.36% in the treatment group and 47.62% in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion
Hydrogel dressing can effectively treat alprostadil-induced by phlebitis.
To determine the optimum process of ZTC1+1Ⅱnatural clarifying agents edulcorated mulberry leaf extracts.Methods
The remaining rate of mulberry leaf alkaloid, flavone,polysaccharide and the solids removal rate were used as indexes, optimized by single factor experiment to study the effect of some factors, such as the order and dosage of clarifying agents, the concentration and the temperature of the extracting solution, whisking time, whisking speed and holding time, response surface methodology was selected to decide the best clarfication process.Results
The optimal process: the order of the ZTC1+1Ⅱ natural clarifying agents was part B after part A, the dosage of clarifiers B and A were 10% and 5% volume of the extract, the extract solution was 0.17 g·mL-1, the temperature was 76 ℃, the whisking speed was 120 r·min-1, the whisking time was 10 min, 80 ℃ holding 30 min, and standing time was 12 h, the remaining rate of mulberry leaf alkaloid, flavone and polysaccharide were 92.5%, 90.2% and 91.1%, the solids removal rate was 26.5%.Conclusion
ZTC1+1Ⅱ natural clarifying agents could effectively purify the extracts of mulbery leaf, optimized by the response surface method, the method is simple and feasible, and clarity is good.
To prepare triamcinolone acetonide acetate (TAA) thermosensitive hydrogel for intra-articular injection, and to investigate its release in vitro.Methods
TAA suspending thermosensitive hydrogel was prepared by using poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-PLGA as gel matrices, xanthan gum as suspending agent and NaCl as flocculant.It was evaluated preliminarily by determining its contents and its in vitro release.Results
The best compositions for preparation of TAA suspending thermosensitive hydrogel were 25% PLGA-PEG-PLGA, 0.05% xanthan gum, 0.9% NaCl and 4 mg·mL-1 TAA.The gelation temperature was 35.3 ℃.The average recovery was (98.98±0.31)%. By the method of membraneless dissolution, the accumulative drug release was up to 83.31% at 16 days.The drug release followed Ritger-Peppas methematical model.Conclusion
The TAA thermosensitive hydrogel with obviously sustained release is expected to become a new drug delivery system for intra-articular injection.
To develop a double-wavelength HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of neogambogic acid, gambogic acid, (+)-catechin and L-epicatechin in Litong pill.Methods
The quantitative analysis was carried out on C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm).A linear elution of methanol-acetonitrile (4:1) and 0.2% phosphoric acid solution was adopted at the flow rate of 1.1 mL·min-1, with the detection wavelength set at 360 nm for neogambogic acid and gambogic acid, and at 280 nm for (+)-catechin and L-epicatechin.Results
The linear ranges of neogambogic acid, gambogic acid, (+)-catechin and L-epicatechin were 5.85-117.00 μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 5), 8.95-179.00 μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 8), 6.90-138.00 μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 7), and 5.30-106.00 μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 9), respectively.The average recoveries were 97.82% (RSD=1.21%), 98.72% (RSD=1.30%), 96.96% (RSD=0.84%) and 99.26% (RSD=1.46%) for neogambogic acid, gambogic acid, (+)-catechin and L-epicatechin, respectively.Conclusion
The method is simple, accurate, reproducible and may be used for the simultaneous determination of neogambogic acid, gambogic acid, (+)-catechin and L-epicatechin in Litong pill.
To establish an HPLC method for determination of 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystibene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (SBGC) and hyperin in the effective fraction of Jiangzhining.Methods
HPLC analysis was performed on a C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), with acetonitrile-0.1% methanoic acid water solution (15.5:84.5) serving as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, the wavelength was 340 nm, and the injection volume was 20 μL.Results
The calibration curve was linear for SBGC in the range of 24-120 μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 8) and for hyperin in the range of 2.4-12.0 μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 6), respectively.Their average recoveries were 100.07% and 100.14%, respectively.The contents of SBGC and hyperin were 2.26% and 0.23%, respectivelyConclusion
The method is convenient, precise and reliable for determination of the content of SBGC and hyperin in the effective fraction of Jiangzhining.
To establish an HPLC method for determination of matrine in matrine ethosome thermosensitive gels.Methods
Matrine was detected in matrine ethosome thermosensitive gels by using a YMC-Pack NH2 column (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm), with the mobile phase containing acetonitrile-ethanol (9:1).The flow rate was 0.8 mL·min-1,the column temperature (25±2) ℃ and the UV detection wavelength 215 nm.Results
The peak area correlated with matrine concentration within the range of 1.00-100.00 μg·mL-1 linearly,and the average correlation coefficient was 0.999 2.The average recoveries rate of low, medium and high concentration of matrine were 98.16%,98.15%,98.00%, respectively,and the RSD were 0.30%,0.69%,0.71%, respectively.Conclusion
The method is simple, sensitive and accurate.With the advantages of specificity, high precision, good stability and repeatability, the HPLC method can be used for the determination of matrine in matrine ethosome thermosensitive gels.
To explore drug abuse prevention measures by surveying the changes before and after methadone maintenance treatment (MMT).Methods
The baseline survey data were obtained from patients who participated in the MTT program for the first time at Wuhan First Health Clinic of Mental Health Center Affiliated to Tongji Medical College between March 2006 and December 2013, and the general conditions of these patients were analyzed.Results
There were 1 186 drug abusers, with a male and low education (junior high school and below) dominance. After the initiation of the MMT program, the number of addicted people was highest in 2008, and then gradually decreased after 2009.MMT program achieved obvious social benefits.The proportion of injectable drug use alone was decreased and the rates of oral drug use and snorting were increased over time.Fixed salary and temporary salary were obviously increased in drug abusers after 2009.Daily drug cost was decreased over time.The proportion of community/media propaganda through which people got to know MMT remained low.Conclusion
The community support and educational propaganda should be strengthened at the same time when MMT is carried out.
To explore the problems in environmental governance of pharmaceutical industry in China, based on the conclusion that the US has done, then propose ways for environmental management to be applied to the pharmacutical industry in China, including strengthening the ecological property research;to transite the government regulation to common control by the government and the market;to speed up the disclosure of environmental information about pharmaceutical enterprise;to try contractual governance within the pharmaceutical industry;to explore sustainable development mechanism of the Evironmental Non-governmental Orgnization (ENGO);to advocate that popularizing of environmental protection knowledge scientific, to support the dissemination of science socialized.