Diabetes complicated with urinary tract infection is influenced by many factors, such as low immune function, high blood and urine glucose environment prone for bacterial growth, and nervous lesion.Diabetic urinary tract infections are characterized by insidious onset, high recurrence rate, correlation with high blood glucose and difficulty to control.The related bacterial pathogens are mainly gram-negative bacillus genus(58.59%-76.19%), in which the detection rates of extended spectrum β lactamases(ESBLs)Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were the highest, followed by Enterobacter cloacae.Gram-positive bacteria only accounted for 23%.Drug-resistant bacteria and fungi would increase under the condition of repeated infection and irrational usage of antibiotics.In recent years, the urine-derived sepsis caused by urinary tract infection had become a popular clinical research topic because of its concealed symptoms, acute onset, rapid development and high mortality.By reviewing domestic and foreign literatures and expert consensus, this article is intended to explore the characteristics and treatment of diabetic urinary tract infections to supply reference for early prevention, correct diagnosis and effective treatments.
Objective To observe the prevention and treatment of the total flavonoids from Litchi chinensis Sonn(TFL)on hepatic fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine(DMN)in rats, and to explore its mechanism. Methods Ninety SD rats were randomly divided into six groups, normal control group, model control group, colchicine group, high-, medium- and low-dose TFL group(n=15).Expect for normal control group, the other groups were given intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL·kg-1 of 5% dimethylnitrosamine for 4 weeks as the model group.The rats in the normal control group and model control group were given 5 mL·kg-1 of 0.9% sodium chloride solution, colchicine group was treated with 0.1 mg·kg-1 colchicine.High-, medium- and low-dose TFL groups were given 200, 100 and 50 mg·kg-1 of TFL.The rats were sacrificed and the livers were harvested and stained with HE and Masson staining to observe pathological changes and liver fibrosis in the same part 6 weeks after all the medicine was given to the rats each day.Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of the transforming growth factor β-Ⅰ/type Ⅱ receptor(TβRⅠ/Ⅱ), collagen Ⅰ(Col Ⅰ)and Ⅲ collagen(Col Ⅲ). Results Compared with the normal control group, the semiquantitative score of liver fiber and the protein expression of TβRⅠ, TβRⅡ, ColⅠ and Col Ⅲ in the model control group were significantly increased(P<0.01).Compared with the model control group, the protein expression levels of TβR, TβRⅡ, ColⅠ and ColⅢ were significantly decreased(P<0.01)in the high-,medium-and low-dose TFL group.The semiquantitative score of liver fiber was significantly decreased(P<0.01)with a dose-effect relationship. Conclusion TFL can inhibit formation of DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats, which may be related with reduction of expression of TβRⅠ/Ⅱ of hepatic fibrosis promoting factor TGF-β1, inhibition of the activation and increase of hepatic stellate cells, reduction of the collagen content.
Objective To construct the evaluation system of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hamsters using 7.0 T 1H-MRS and MRI and apply it to evaluation of effect of ezetimibe on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hamsters. Methods Thirty male hamsters were randomly divided into three groups, normal control group, model control group and ezetimibe group.Normal control group was given chow diet, model control group and ezetimibe group was given high fat diet(HFD).Two weeks later, the ezetimibe group was administrated with ezetimibeat 2.7 mg·kg-1·d-1.After the 12 weeks of ezebimibe treatment, the MRI examinations were done on a 7T Bruker Biospec imaging system equipped with a 40 cm horizontal bore magnet.Then the hamsters were sacrificed to collect serum for chemistry analysis and livers for histopathologic examination. Results Compared with normal control group, the perirenal and inguinal adipose tissue accumulated in model control group, while a significant decrease of perirenal and inguinal adipose tissue in ezetimibe group was observed accompanied by a reduction of histological steatosis.The liver MWR was (17.64±8.97) in normal control group, (270.28±110.44) in model control group and (57.19±27.49) in ezetimibe group(P<0.01).The PUI of the livers was (0.035±0.023) in normal control group, (0.007 2±0.005 3) in model control group and (0.024±0.019) in ezetimibe group(P<0.01).Compared with normal control group, serum levels of TC, TG, FFA, LDL-C, ALT and AST in model control group increased significantly(P<0.01).However, ezetimibe significantly lowered the serum levels of TC, TG, FFA, LDL-C, ALT and AST(P<0.01)in hamsters fed with HFD. Conclusion 1H-MRS and MRI could be used to construct the evaluation system of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hamsters and ezetimibe can significantly improve nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in HFD-fed hamsters.
Objective To probe into impacts of safflor yellow injection on rats with acute myocardial infarction and discuss its mechanism. Methods Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham operation group(8 rats)and operation groups(32 rats).The left anterior descending branch of coronary artery was ligated to establish an animal model with acute myocardial infarction.The rats with successful modeling were randomly divided into model control group, 3-, 7- and 14-days safflor yellow group.In the treatment group, the rats were injected with safflor yellow injection(2.5 mg·kg-1·d-1)for 3, 7 and 14 days, respectively.Rats in sham operation and model control group were injected 0.9% sodium chloride solution.Their weights were measured 24 h after the last drug administration, their hearts were removed, and the serum was obtained through centrifugation.The enzymic method was used to measure the lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)and creatine kinase(CK)contents of serum.Hematoxylin eosiny(HE)staining method was used to observe the change of myocardial cells.The chloride three phenyl-tetrazole(TTC)staining method was used to measure the area of myocardial infarction in the rats.The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method was used to measure the expression of VEGF and HIF mRNA at the marginal zone of myocardial infarction. Results The levels of LDH and CK were(106.12±35.52),(452.84±60.38)mmol·L-1 in sham operation group, and(385.66±137.58),(2 111.00±1 250.80)mmol·L-1 in model control group.LDH in 3-, 7-, 14-days treatment groups was(249.66±51.86),(104.33±51.08),(110.33±26.76)mmol·L-1, while CK was(1 713.00±584.74),(1 177.66±980.18),(421.33±54.60)mmol·L-1.LDH and CK levels of the 14-days treatment group were significantly lower than those in the model control group(both P<0.05).The area of myocardial infarction was (0.00±0.00)% in sham operation group,(13.12±6.69)% in the model control group, and(8.11±3.45)%,(7.01±2.98)%,(3.44±1.17)% in the 3-, 7-, 14-days treatment groups.The area of myocardial infarction in the 14-days treatment group was significantly lower than that of the model control group(P<0.05).The expression of VEGF and HIF mRNA was 1.99±0.27, 6.21±1.35 in the sham operation group, 1.03±0.15, 1.78±0.57 in the model control group.The expression of HIF mRNA in the 3-, 7-, 14-days treatment groups was 0.50±0.12, 1.23±0.24, 2.20±0.32, and the expression of VEGF mRNA in the 3-, 7-, 14-days treatment groups was 0.43±1.27, 2.67±0.83, 5.78±1.23. Conclusion The safflor yellow injection has therapeutical effects on the rats with acute myocardial infarction, and the effects will become significant after 14 day.It can reduce the area of myocardial infarction and LDH and CK content at the drug administration groups, which might be related to the increase of the expression of VEGF and HIF mRNA.
Objective To investigate the effects of methycobal on the expression of Caspase-3 in brain tissue after cerebral ischemia reperfusion in rats. Methods Rats were randomly divided into sham-operation group, model control group, nimodipine group and low-dose methycobal group, high-dose methycobal group(n=30 in each group).Rats in the sham-operation group and model control group were administered intragastrically with 0.9% sodium chloride solution, rats in the nimodipine group were treated with 1 mg·kg-1·d-1 of nimodipine, rats in the low- and high-dose of methycobal groups were given 50 and 100 μg·kg-1·d-1 of methycobal, respectively.The rat model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion with suture method for 3 h.Neurological deficit scores were evaluated 24 h after reperfusion.The apoptosis of perifocal cortex cells was detected by TUNEL method and the expression of Caspase-3 was analyzed by RT-PCR 6, 12 and 24 h after reperfusion. Results Neurological deficit scores in model control group, nimodipine group, low-dose methycobal group and high-dose methycobal group were 2.70±0.52, 1.30±0.51, 2.20±0.75 and 1.30±0.81, respectively.Compared with model control group, neurological deficit scores were significantly different in the nimodipine group, low-dose methycobal group and high-dose methycobal group(P<0.05 or P<0.01).There were no significant differences between the high-dose methycobal group and nimodipine group(P>0.05).There was a significant difference between the high-dose methycobal group and low-dose methycobal group(P<0.05).The results of apoptosis by TUNEL were as follows: compared with model control group, the apoptosis decreased obvsiouly in the nimodipine group, low-dose methycobal group, and high-dose methycobal group at each time point.There was significant difference between the high-dose methycobal group and nimodipine group at the end of the 24th hours(P<0.01).Compared with low-dose methycobal group, there were significant differences in the high-dose methycobal group at the end of 6th, 12th and 24th hours(P<0.01 or P<0.05).The results of RT-PCR were as follows: there was expression of caspase-3 mRNA in the perifocal cortex of all groups, with weak expression in the sham-operation group.Compared with the sham-operation group, the expression of caspase-3 mRNA was increased significantly in the model control group(P<0.01).The expression of caspase-3 mRNA was reduced significantly in the nimodipine group, the low-dose methycobal group and high-dose methycobal group as compared with model control group at each time point(P<0.05 or P<0.01), but it was not significantly different in the low-dose methycobal group and high-dose methycobal group as compared with that of the nimodipine group(P>0.05).There were significant differences between the high-dose methycobal group and low-dose methycobal group at the end of 24 h(P<0.05). Conclusion Methycobal can protect the brain cells from injury after cerebral ischemia reperfusion by adjusting the expression of Caspase-3m RNA, and the high-dose methycobal is more effective.
Objective To establish a liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method(LC-MS/MS method)for determination of dextrorphan in human liver microsome. Methods LC-MS/MS was adopted with carbamazepine serving as an internal standard.The separation was performed on Agilent ZORBAX XDB-C18 column (2.1 mm×50 mm, 3.5 μm), with mobile phase consisting of 0.05% formic acid methanol-0.05% formic acid in gradient elution.Dextrorphan and carbamazepine were detected on multiple reaction monitoring(MRM)mode by transitions from precursor to production(m/z 258.1→199.1, 237.1→194.1). Results The linear range of dextrorphan concentration was 19.22-768 960 ng·L-1(r=0.999 8), and the lowest quantification limit was 19.22 ng·L-1.The relative recoveries were 94.02%-98.74%, and the RSDs of intra-day and inter-day were within 10%.IC50 of psoralen on CYP2D6 was 0.6 μmol·L-1. Conclusion The LC-MS/MS method is proved to be rapid, sensitive and reproducible, psoralen is a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6.
Objective To investigate the inhibition mechanism of tetramethylpyrazine combined with cisplatin on angiogenesis in Lewis lung cancer mice and to observe the mechanism of Arresten on angiogenesis in lung cancer. Methods The model of Lewis lung adenocarcinoma mouse xenograft was established in this work, and 40 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: 0.9% sodium chloride solution group(NS group), tetramethylpyrazine group(TMP group), cisplatin group(DDP group), tetramethylpyrazine plus cisplatin group(TMP + DDP group), 10 mice in each group.Mice in NS group were given 0.2 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution, mice in DDP group were given 0.2 mL of 2 mg·kg-1 of cisplatin, mice in TMP group were given 0.2 mL of 100 mg·kg-1 of tetramethylpyrazine, mice in TMP+DDP group were given 2 mg·kg-1 of cisplatin and 100 mg·kg-1 of tetramethylpyrazine, each 0.1 mL .Tumor size was measured every day to calculate the tumor volume.The mice were sacrificed to stripp the subcutaneous tumor after continuous medication.The expressions of Arresten, integrin α1β1 and VEGF were determinated by immunhistochemistry and Western blotting. Results The tumor growth of NS group was the fastest and TMP+DDP group was the slowest.Compared with NS group, the expression of Arresten in the other three groups was increased(P<0.01), and the TMP+DDP group exhibited the highest expression;at the same time, integrin α1β1, VEGF in the other three groups was decreased(P<0.01), and the TMP+DDP group exhibited the lowest expression.The expression of integrin α1β1 and VEGF was negatively related to Arresten, and the expression of integrin α1β1was positively correlated with VEGF. Conclusion TMP can inhibited the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma and angiogenesis.Moreover, in combination with cisplatin, TMP can also improved the effect of chemotherapy and then the survival state of mice.The mechanism of action, which TMP suppress tumor angiogenesis may be through improving Arresten and inhibiting integrin α1β1 and VEGF.And the action mechanism of Arresten may be implemented by inhibiting the expression of VEGF by incorporation with integrin α1β1 or by itself to inhibit the expression of VEGF.
Objective To investigate the effect of Shensong Yangxin capsule on cardiac remodelling of myocardial infarction mouse model and the possible molecular mechanisms. Methods Adult male C57BL/6J mice were divided into sham operation group(n=10), model control group(n=20)and Shensong Yangxin group(n=20)according to random number table.Left anterior descending branch of coronary artery was ligated to establish myocardic infarction model in the model control group and Shensong Yangxin group.From the 2nd day after the surgery, Shensong Yangxin(400 mg·kg-1)was intragastrically administered, and the death rate of the mice was observed.Four weeks after the surgery, echocardiography was used to measure the cardiac function;myocardiac infarction area was detected by pathological staining;the expression levels of cardiac remodelling markers and extracellular matrix proteins were detected by RT-PCR.The possible molecular mechanisms were screened by Western blotting. Results As compared with the model control group, Shensong Yangxin significantly reduced the mortality after myocardial infarction in mice(P<0.05), as well as the myocardial infarct size(P<0.05).The mRNA expression levels of cardiac remodelling markers ANP, BNP, and β-MHC and the extracellular matrix proteins(collagenⅠ, collagen Ⅲ, CTGF, TGFβ)decreased significantly in the Shensong Yangxin group as compared with the model control group. Western blotting showed that Shensong Yangxin significantly decreased activation of smad3, and reduced expression level of smad4. Conclusion Shensong Yangxin attenuates cardiac remodelling after myocardial infarction and the mechanism may be related with blockage of smad signaling pathway.
Objective To study the effect and mechanism of Plantago depressa Willd.extract on rats with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis. Methods Sixty rats were divided into six groups randomly: normal control group, model control group, cernilton group, high-, medium- and low- dose Plantago depressa Willd.extract group, ten rats in each group.Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis rat model was established in the animals except of normal control group.Rats in the cernilton group were administrated with cernilton solution(100 mg·kg-1).High, middle and low dose Plantago depressa Willd.extract groups were given 150, 300 and 600 mg·kg-1 of Plantago depressa Willd.extract, respectively.The rats in the normal control and model control group were treated with the same volume of purified water.The administration was performed once every day, and lasted for three weeks.Effects of Plantago depressa Willd.extract on prostate index (PI), prostate specific antigen (PSA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), cycloxygenase 2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PEG2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) , and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) levels and pathological changes of prostate tissue in rats were observed. Results PI and PSA levels of the normal control group were(0.8±0.3)mg·g-1 and(106.5±10.6)pg·mL-1,respectively;those of the model control group were(2.2±0.2)mg·g-1 and(319.4±23.4)pg·mL-1 respectively;Those of the cernilton group were(1.6±0.3)mg·g-1 and(179.5±13.7)pg·mL-1 respectively;Those of the low-, medium- and high- dose Plantago depressa Willd.extract groups were(1.8±0.4),(1.3±0.3),(0.8±0.3)mg·g-1 and(263.4±28.6),(178.5±21.5),(143.5±12.9)pg·mL-1, respectively.Compared with the model control group, PI and PSA were significantly decreased(P<0.01), TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, PEG2, TGF-β1 and CTGF levels in the prostate tissues were decreased(P<0.01), and inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis of prostate tissue was significantly alleviated in the model control group. Conclusion This study confirms Plantago depressa Willd.extract exerts effective therapeutical effect on chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in rats.
Objective To investigate the effect of different composed combination of EGCG and cisplatin on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line SW620 and the related mechanisms. Methods SW620 cells at exponential phase were treated with cisplatin(5 mmol·L-1)and EGCG(0, 25, 50 and 100 mmol·L-1).Seventy hours after the cultivation, cell proliferation was detected with MTT;the percentage of apoptotic cells was determined by flow cytometry;expression levels of JAK2, p-JAK2, p-STAT3, STAT3, Bax, Bcl-2, cleavage-PARP, and cleavage-caspase3 were detected by Western blotting. Results The SW620 cell proliferation rate was(95±5)%,(67±5)%,(42±5)%(22±4)% and the apoptotic rat was 5%, 15%, 35%, 57% in the 0, 25,50, 100 mmol·L-1 EGCG groups, respectively.Moreover, EGCG up-regulated the expression of Bax, cleavage-PARP and cleavage-caspase3(P<0.05)and down-regulated the expression of p-JAK2, p-STAT3 and Bcl-2(P<0.05)in a dose-dependent manner, but had no influence on the expression of JAK2 and STAT3(P>0.05). Conclusion EGCG can promote cisplatin-induced apoptosis and proliferation inhibition of human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines of SW620 by suppressing JAK2/STAT3 gignaling pathway.
Objective To investigate the influence of Simiao pill intervention on the life quality of patients with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease(CPID). Methods Eighty-five cases of damp heat and blood stasis type of CPID were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group(n=43)was treated with Simiao pill decoction combined with other Chinese herbs;the control group(n=42)was treated with Fuke Qianjin capsules.Three months after the treatment, clinical efficacy was evaluated and life quality was assessed by WHOQOL-BREF. Results The total effective rate was 90.70% in the treatment group and 71.43% in the control group(P<0.05).Before the treatment, score of each dimension of WHOQOL-BREF in both groups was not significantly different(P>0.05).After the treatment, score of each dimension of WHOQOL-BREF in both groups were increased, and the total score was(104.21±6.67)in the treatment group and(89.60±7.31)in the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion Simiao pill decoction combined with other Chinese herbs can effectively treat damp heat and blood stasis type of CPID and improve the life quality of the patients.
Objective To explore the effect of different dosages of progynova in preventing intrauterine adhesions after transcervical resection of septum (TCRS) under laparoscope. Methods Clinical data of 213 TCRS patients under laparoscope were retrospectively analyzed, and these cases were divided into four groups according to the dosages of progynova.Except for group A (n=26), group B, C, D were given 4,6,8 mg·d-1 of progynova.Endometrial thickness, menstrual blood volume, incidence rates of residual septal and intrauterine adhesions, rate of adverse effect, pregnancy rate after operation and rate of spontaneous abortion were compared among the four groups. Results The incidence rate of residual septal in group A, B, C, D was 11.5%, 6.9%, 6.0% and 6.3%, respectively.Incidence rate of intrauterine adhesions after operation was 46.2%, 12.5%, 9.0% and 4.2%, respectively.The pregnancy rate in group A, B, C and D was 30.8%, 59.7%, 58.2% and 60.4%, respectively.There were significant differences between group A and the other groups(all P<0.05).The high dose of progynova(8 mg·d-1)significantly increased endometrial thickness(P<0.05)and menstrual blood volume(P<0.05).But the incidence rates of gastrointestinal tract reaction, hepatic damage and vaginal spotting in the high dose group of progynova increased obviously(P<0.05). Conclusion Progynova is a safe and effective drug in preventing intrauterine adhesions after TCRS. It can effectively prevent intrauterine adhesions, increase pregnancy rate and improve pregnant outcome.
Objective To investigate the therapeutical effect of Resina draconis. on endometriosis rat model. Methods Totally, 60 adult rats were selected and divided into blank control group(n=10)and blood stasis endometriosis model group(n=50).The blood stasis endometriosis model group was randomly divided into 5 groups after modeling: the Resina draconis. high-, medium-, and low- dose group, Guizhi Fuling group and model control group, 10 rats in each group.The Resina draconis. at 0.50, 0.25 and 0.12 g·kg-1·d-1 was administered to the rats in the Resina draconis. high-, medium-, and low-dose groups, Guizhi Fuling capsule at 0.25 g·kg-1·d-1 to those in Guizhi Fuling group, and the same volume of 0.5% sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose solution to those in model control group and blank control group. All treatments lasted for 3 weeks.At the end of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed;the volume and weight of ectopic tissue were measured.The blood viscosity was detected with blood rheometer.The concentration of estradiol and progesterone was detected using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay.The matrix metalloprotein-2 expression in ectopic tissues was determined by RT-PCR. Results High, medium and low dose Resina draconis. significantly reduced the volume and weight of the ectopic tissue, and inhibited MMP-2 expression in ectopic tissues.High-, medium-dose Resina draconis. significantly reduced plasma cutting middle and low shear viscosity of the rats.But the Resina draconis. had no obvious effect on serum estradiol and progesterone concentration. Conclusion Resina draconis. reduces blood viscosity and inhibits MMP-2 expression, which can be used for the treatment of blood stasis type of endometriosis.
Objective To observe the effect of TanshinoneⅡA(TanⅡA)on endometriosis(EMS)rat model and study the possible mechanism. Methods EMS rat model was established by autologous endometrium transplantation.EMS rats were randomly divided into five groups: high-, medium-, low-dose TanⅡA group, mifepristone group and model control group(n=10), the other ten normal rats as normal control group.The rats in the model control group and normal control group were given 0.9% sodium chloride solution.The rats in the mifepristone group were given 25 mg·kg-1·d-1 mifepristone.The rats in the high-, medium-, low-dose TanⅡA groups were given 30, 20 and 10 mg·kg-1·d-1 TanⅡA, respectively.Four weeks after the treatment, the volume of endometriotic implants in each rat was measured.Pathological changes of ectopic endometrium were observed under light microscope.Expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-9 in ectopic endomembrane of rats were determined by Western blotting. Results High and medium dose TanⅡA and mifepristone significantly reduced the volume of ectopic lesions(P<0.05).As compared with model control group, the inhibition rate of the ectopic lesions in low-, medium-, high-dose TanⅡA groups and mifepristone group was 17.81%, 57.78%, 58.88% and 64.12%, respectively.High and medium dose TanⅡA and mifepristone promoted atrophy of ectopic endometrium, inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 protein and promoted the expression of Bax and Caspase-9 in ectopic tissues(P<0.05). Conclusion TanⅡA significantly decreases the size of ectopic lesions in rats, possibly through reducing the expression of Bcl-2 and increasing the expression of Bax and Caspase-9 to regulate cell apoptosis.
Objective To investigate the effects of levocarnitine on pregnancy outcome of the patients with obstructive azoospermia treated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI). Methods A total of 74 patients with obstructive azoospermatism treated with ICSI randomly divided into 2 groups: treatment group(n=38), taking levocarnitine before treatment with ICSI 1 g twice a day for three months;control group(n=36), taking vitamine E before treatment with ICSI 0.1 g twice a day time for three months.tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), reactive oxygen species(ROS) level, epididymal sperm motility and morphology in epididymal fluid of the two groups were determined before and after treatments.The number of matured oocytes, fertilization, and embryos of adequate quality, the rate of fertilization and embryo of adequate quality, and pregnancy rates after PESA-ICSI were compared between the two groups. Results TNF-α in epididymal fluid before and after the treatment was(5.39±2.28)and(4.05±2.14)ng·mL-1 in the treatment group(P<0.05), and(4.97±2.13)and(4.83±2.35)ng·mL-1 in the control group.ROS in epididymal fluid before and after the treatment was(62.72±8.51),(56.28±8.70)RLU·s-1(P<0.05)in the treatment group(P<0.05), and(62.61±7.55)and(61.05±6.77)RLU·s-1 in the control group.After treatment with levocarnitine, epididymal sperm motility was significantly increased(P<0.05).There were no significant differences in all the indexes in the control group before and after the treatment(P>0.05).After PESA-ICSI, the number and percentage of high quality embryo in the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion Levocarnitine can down-regulate epididymal TNF-α and ROS in patients with obstructive azoospermatism, thereby improve the environment of the epididymis and elevate the quality of sperm and ICSI pregnancy outcome.
Objective To prepare the PLGA nanoparticles(NPs)loading tetrandrine, investigate in vitro drug release behavior. Methods Tetrandrine loaded PLGA NPs were prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion method and the preparation process was optimized by changing the stabilizer concentration and emulsion energy.The drug loading and entrapment efficiency were studied to evaluate the drug-loading property.The influence of particles size and pH value of release media on drug release behavior was investigated. Results Nanoparticles in the mean size of(203.4±2.8)nm had spherical shape and showed negative surface charge.Drug loading and entrapment efficiency was(2.17±0.10)% and(67.88±4.27)%, respectively.Tet-PLGA NPs retarded drug release in vitro, the cumulative release percentage was increased with the particle size increasing and it in acidic release medium showed a higher drug release amount. Conclusion Tetrandrine loaded PLGA nanoparticles have good entrapment efficiency, uniform particle size and can retard drug release in vitro.
Objective To optimize the technological conditions of polysaccharide purification from compound Qianyu water decoction. Methods Water extraction and alcohol precipitation, resolution, Sevag method and dialysis method were used to purify polysaccharide.The purity of polysaccharide was measured with the phenol-sulfuric acid spectrophotometry.On the basis of single factor test, effects of redissolved solid-liquid ratio, number of protein removal, and dialytic time on polysaccharide purity of Qianyu were investigated by orthogonal test. Results The best conditions for purification of polysaccharide in Qianyu were as follows: liquid-solid ratio was 1:40(g/mL, W/V), remove protein for 10 times, and dialysis for 18 h.The content of polysaccharide could reach 69.04%, and the transfer rate was 51.84%. Conclusion The optimized purification process was simple and accurate.It can be used for polysaccharide purification in compound Qianyu water decoction.
Objective To extract hyperoside from the leaves of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus by complex enzyme method, and optimize the extraction process by orthogonal experiment. Methods Hyperoside was determined by HPLC.Effects of temperature, α-amylase, neutral protease and cellulase on extraction rate were detected by the orthogonal tests, and the optimum extraction condition of hyperoside from the leaves of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus was determined by complex enzyme method. Results The main influence factor was temperature,follows by α-amylase, neutral protease and cellulase according to orthogonal analysis.The best condition was as follows: dose of cellulase, neutral protease and α-amylase was 2%, 0.5% and 3%, respectively, extract at temperature of 30 ℃for 10 min.Under this condition, the extraction rate of hyperoside in the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus was 0.52%. Conclusion As compared with the traditional technics, compound enzyme increases the productivity of hyperoside.
Objective To explore the release and percutaneous penetration of cyclovirobuxine D patches at different concentrations in vitro. Methods The release curves of cyclovirobuxine D patch in vitro were fitted by ritger-peppas mathematical model, and the patch release mechanism was discussed according to the fitting parameters.At the same time, compared the percutaneous permeability characteristics of 0.25,0.5,1.0,2.0 mg·(cm2)-1 of cyclovirobuxine D patch by using a modified Franz diffusion cell, with isolated rat skin serving as transdermal barrier. Results Ritger-Peppas model fitting equation for cyclovirobuxine D patch [1.00 mg·(cm2)-1]was: Mt/M=0.964 6 t1.621 6.And the percutaneous penetration curve was best fitted to Higuchi kinetics equation.The drug release rate from the patch matrix was greater than the rate of penetration through the skin, indicating the patch at the time through rat's skin was a passive diffusion process, and transdermal process was rate-limited by skin. Conclusion Kinetics equation fitting is an effective method for analyzing drug release and permeation behavior of cyclovirobuxine D patch in vitro.
Objective To establish a method for determination of chlorogenic acid, galuteolin and 3,5-O-dicaffeoyl quinic acid in chrysanthemums by quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker(QAMS). Methods Using chlorogenic acid as the internal standard substance, the relative correction factors(RCFs)of galuteolin and 3,5-O-dicaffeoyl quinic acid were determined by HPLC.The contents of chlorogenic acid, galuteolin and 3,5-dicaffeoyl quinic acid in 12 samples of chrysanthemums were authentically determined by the external standard method, so as to to verify the accuracy of the QAMS method. Results The average relative error of contents of galuteolin and 3,5-O-dicaffeoyl quinic acid was 2.75% and 1.33% by the external standard method and QAMS, respectively. Conclusion The established RCFs have good reproducibility.In case of lack of standard substances, the QAMS method with chlorogenic acid as an internal standard for determination of 3 indicators in chrysanthemum is feasible.
Through searching literature and analyzing documents, the system of drug supervision in Germany and British was analyzed, and the conspicuous features in drug supervision were obtained.Experiences of drug supervision were summarized.Germany and Britain, as representatives of developed western countries, have established wholesome supervision system and mature supervision pattern, which are continuously developed and improved in practice.Drug administration experiences of Germany and Britain provide beneficial reference to drug supervision in China.