In recent years,the prevalence of diabetes is increasing year by year with the improvement of people's living standard.The traditional oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs as well as insulin injection therapy can not block the progress of the disease course.The deterioration of glycaemic control results in various acute and chronic complications which seriously affect patients' health and bring huge economic burden.The researchers have been seeking new therapeutic regimens to improve or even reverse diabetes process.This paper focuses on the following novel treatment options such as GLP-1 receptor agonist,DPP4 inhibitors,fixed-dose combination,SGLT2 inhibitors,amylin analogues,dopamine receptor agonist,bile acid sequestrant,bariatric surgery and pancreatic stem cell transplantation.
Objective To investigate the prevention efficiency of spanishneedles herb eye drops on rabbit model with dry eye syndrome caused by sex hormones decline in peri-menopause. Methods Totally 26 rabbits ( 26 right eyes) with dry eye model were studied,and divided into two groups:group A ( the control group, n=12) and group B ( the spanishneedles herb eye drops group, n=12) ,another two rabbits were used as normal control.The Schirmer I tests (SIT), and corneal fluorescein(FL) were detected, and the total protein content in tear, amylase activity, lactoferrin and lysozyme contents were measured and confocal scanning microscopy were performed at pre-therapy and 1 week,2 weeks,1 month,2 months after therapy,respectively. Results There were no significant difference in the total proteins,lysozyme,lactoferrin and amylase activity between two groups at pre-therapy (P>0.05).After 2 months treatment, there were statistical differences in all items of group A(P<0.05), and SIT, FL in group B(P<0.05).There were significant differences in all indexes between group A and B at 1 wk,2wk,1mo,2mo after therapy.After 2 months treatment,the mean numbers of corneal basal cell in the group B were significantly lower(3 452±422)than those in the group A(4 104±568)(P<0.05).The mean numbers of the inflammatory cells in the group B(42±18)were significantly lower than those in the group A(208±69)( P<0.05). Conclusion Spanishneedles herb eye drops has significant prevention effect on dry eye syndrome caused by sex hormones decline in peri-menopause.
Objective To evaluate hypoglycemic activity of rose extracts in vitro,find insulin-stimulated signaling pathway which rose extracts act on and illuminate its action mechanism. Methods CHO-K1 cell model was transfected to overexpress PTP1B by using liposome-mediated plasmid transfection methods,and the effects of rose extracts on expression of signal regulatory protein molecules were studied in vitro through western blot analysis. Results Rose extracts effectively inhibited PTP1B activity with IC50 value of 62.31 ng·mL-1 and increased glucose consumption, the effects were similar to the positive group; Rose extracts obviously elevated phosphorylated levels of IRS-1、 PDK1、AKT and GSK-3β. Conclusion Rose extracts had good inhibitory activity against PTP1B and promoted glucose consumption in CHO-K1 cell,which suggested it had potential hypoglycemic activity.Furthermore, rose extracts activated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway by increasing phosphorylated levels of IRS-1、PDK1、AKT and GSK-3β,and then promoted insulin signal transduction and glycogen synthesis.By these means, rose extracts ultimately achieved the goal of lowering blood sugar.
Objective To study the preventive effect of ω-6 soybean oil fatty emulsion on gastric ulcer caused by acetic acid in rat model, and investigate its mechanisms. Methods Thirty healthy rats were randomly and equally assigned to the following 3 groups:sham operation,gastric ulcer,and ω-6 Soybean oil fatty emulsion group.The model was induced by acetic acid.Five days after the model was established successfully,rats in ω-6 soybean oil group received the treatment by tail intravenous injection with the dose of 10 mL·kg-1·d-1,the sham operation group and gastric ulcer group were given the same dose of 0.9% sodium chloride solution.The rats were sacrificed at 10th day after the treatment.The pathological changes of rat gastric ulcer tissue were observed by HE staining, and the concentration of gastric acid was detected by acid-base neutralization method,as well as the activity of pepsin was detected by colorimetry.Serum NO concentration was detected with nitrate reductive enzymatic method,and the expression of EGFR in gastric mucosal was detected with immunohistochemical method. Results Gastric ulcer area in ω-6 soybean oil fatty emulsion group (5.67±2.32 mm2) was significantly lower than that in gastric ulcer group(8.68±1.98 mm2).The concentration of gastric acid (1.70±0.53 mmol·L-1), activity of pepsin(23.12±6.97 U) and NO level (64.62±13.86 μmol·L-1) in ω-6 soybean oil fatty emulsion group were much lower than those in the model control group.While the expression of EGFR in gastric ulcer tissue was increased after treatment with ω-6 soybean oil fatty emulsion. Conclusion ω-6 soybean oil fatty emulsion exerts significant promotion effect on the healing of gastric ulcer,and its mechanism might be related to inhibiting the level of gastric acid, pepsin and NO, while improving the protective effect of EGFR on gastric mucosa.
Objective To investigate the effects of Rosa Laevigata Michx Flavoid(RLMF) and Rosa laevigata Michx Polysaccharose (RLMP) on expression of TRPV5 in IgA Nephropathy (IgAN) rat renal tissue. Methods Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups.The rat model of IgA nephropathy was induced by intragastric administration of bovine serumalbumin and injections of LPS and CC14.Eight weeks later,the rats with IgAN were treated with RLMF or RLMP (4 weeks), or normal saline.Rats was sacrificed at thirteenth weeks, and RNA was extracted from the kidney.Expression of TRPV5 in tubulointerstitial tissues were analyzed by fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. Results After RFLP intervention,the expression levels of TRPV5 were markedly increased (P<0.01) than model control group,while decreased (P<0.05) than normal control group but had no significance with model control group after RFLF intervention. Conclusion TRPV5 expression is decreased in IgAN,and RLMP can adjust TRPV5 expression and improve renal function of IgAN.
Objective To prepare,characterize glycyrrhetinic acid lysinate,and study the solubilization and inhibitory action antitumor activity of glycyrrhetinic acid lysinate on cell proliferation of colorectal cancer cell line HCT-8. Methods Glycyrrhetinic acid lysinate was prepared by co-grinding glycyrrhetinic acid with lysine in 1:1 molar mixture for 10 hours.Characterization of glycyrrhetinic acid lysinate was achieved by X-ray powder diffraction,infrared spectroscopy,and ultraviolet spectrum techniques.HPLC method was used to study the solubilization of glycyrrhetinic acid lysinate.The MTT method was used to assay the inhibitory action of glycyrrhetinic acid lysinate on cell proliferation. Results The solubility of glycyrrhetinic acid lysinate was enhanced 260 folds,compared with glycyrrhetinicacid in water.The inhibitory cell proliferation action on HCT-8 of glycyrrhetinic acid lysinate was 7 times higher than that of glycyrrhetinic acid. Conclusion The satisfactory water solubility and antitumor activity of glycyrrhetinic acid lysinate will be potentially useful for its application as a new pharmaceutical formulation in cancer treatment in the future.
Objective To investigate the effect of cordyceps sinensis from different origins on immune response in mice. Methods Cordyceps sinensis from two origins were prepared into powder, and then the mice were divided into high, middle and low dose(0.4,0.2,0.1 g·kg-1)groups, respectively.In addition, purified water was given as the normal control group.Effects of cordyceps from two different origins were observed by detecting spleen lymphocyte proliferation induced by ConA, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) in mice induced by sheep red blood cells (SRBC), the number of antibody-producing cells, carbon clearance and peritoneal macrophages Swallow fluorescent microspheres, as well as the activity of NK cells. Results The ability of spleen lymphocyte proliferation induced by ConA, carbon clearance and peritoneal macrophages Swallow fluorescent microspheres, and the activity of NK cells were significantly enhanced in the middle and high dose group of two different origins cordyceps, compared with normal control group (P<0.05).Additionally, the number of antibody-producing cells was obviously increased in medium dose group of both origins cordyceps and decreased in the high dose group (P<0.05).The middle and high dose Qinghai cordyceps significantly improved DTH in mice, while Tibet cordyceps sinensis had no obvious effect, and there was significant difference (P<0.05) between the high dose group of Qinghai and three dose groups of Tibet Cordyceps sinensis.In addition, levels of serum hemolysin in mice were significantly increased in the middle and high dose group of Qinghai and high dose group of Tibet Cordyceps sinensis (P<0.05), and the differences of corresponding medium and high doses of two origins were significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Cordyceps sinensis of both different regions significantly improved the immune response of mice.However, the efficacy between the two origins was roughly equivalent and had no significant difference.
Objective To evaluate the protective effect of Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSPS) on immunological and chemical liver injury in mice. Methods Thirty Kunming male mice were randomly divided into five groups,including the normal control group,model control group,and low-,middle-,and high-dose BSPS groups (n=6 each).Tail vein injection of ConA was carried out to establish the ConA-induced liver injury model.After different treatments,all the animals were sacrificed,and the plasma levels of ALT and AST were tested.Additionally,sixty Kunming male mice were randomly divided into six groups,including the normal control group,model control group,silymarin group,and low-,middle-,and high-dose BSPS groups (n=10 each).Tail vein injection of CCl4 was performed to establish the CCl4-induced acute liver injury model.After different treatments,the plasma levels of ALT and GSH were tested.The effects of BSPS on the weights of the liver and spleen were examined. Results The levels of ALT and AST were reduced in BSPS-treated mice when compared with those experiencing only ConA-induced liver injury (model control group),and significant difference was found between the middle-and high-dose BSPS groups and the model control group (P<0.01,P<0.05).The weights of the liver and spleen and the level of ALT were reduced in BSPS-treated mice as compared with those with only CCl4-induced acute liver injury (model control group),while the level of GSH was significantly increased in middle-and high-dose BSPS groups (P<0.05). Conclusion BSPS at low,middle,and high doses can prevent against the ConA-induced immunological liver injury and CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice.
Objective To investigate the influence of β-cyclodextrin(β-CD)inclusion and its cataplasma on the transdermal permeability of volatile oil extracted from Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Asari Radix et Rhizoma by means of percutaneous penetration test of four preparations containing of the volatile oil. Methods Using the modified Franz diffusion pool as equipment,with 40% ethanol solution as absorption solution and SD rat skin coated with the volatile oil,a β-CD inclusion complex of the volatile oil,a cataplasma of the β-CD inclusion complex of the volatile oil,and a cataplasma of the mixture of the volatile oil and β-CD,respectively,as experimental skin,the transdermal penetration test was carried out.The cumulative penetrative amounts of volatile oil in the absorption liquid were measured by GC-MS in order to evaluate the differences in the percutaneous permeability. Results The percutaneous penetration rate constant size order of four preparations containing the volatile oil is as follows:the volatile oil directly coated on the skin > the cataplasma of β-CD inclusion complex of the volatile oil > the β-CD inclusion complex of the volatile oil directly coated on the skin > the cataplasma of the mixture of the volatile oil and β-CD. Conclusion The compositions of the volatile oil retrieved from the β-CD inclusion complex are no significant changes.The percutaneous permeability of the cataplasma of β-CD inclusion complex of the volatile oil is better than that of the cataplasma of the mixture of volatile oil and β-CD.
Objective To investigate the role of N-acetylcysteine as a protective agent in rifampicin-induced hepatic injury of mice. Methods Thirth-two Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups(n=8 each).The mice in each group were injected intraperitoneally with 0.9% sodium chloride solution (control), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), combination of rifampicin (R), or NAC and R (NAC+R) once every day.After 14 days, the liver index (LI), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in serum, and the level of malondialdehyde(MDA),superoxide dismutase(SOD)activity in liver tissues were measured respectively.Hepatic tissue morphology was observed under light microscope. Results Macroscopic analysis revealed that rifampicin led to severe liver tissue injury,including a wide range of hepatocellular vascular congestion,fatty change and local necrosis,whereas the administrationof NAC produced a significant reduction of rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity .LI,ALT and AST activities in R or NAC+R group were significantly elevated as compared with the control group(P<0.01) .LI, activities of ALT and AST in serum,and MDA levels in liver tissues in NAC+R group were significantly lower than those in R group (P<0.01),but the SOD activity in NAC+R group was increased significantly in comparison with R group (P<0.01). Conclusion Rifampicin was able to cause severe hepatic injury.Pre-administration of NAC reduced the side-effect induced by the treatment with the rifampicin.
Objective To explore the in vitro antibacterial effect of tanreqing injection combined with cefuroxime sodium injection against staphylococcus aureus. Methods The MIC of tanreqing injection or cefuroxime sodium injection against staphylococcus aureus was detected by microamount dilution method.The antibacterial activity of tanreqing injection combined with cefuroxime sodium injection was determined by a chess board dilution method and assessed according to FIC index. Results The MIC of tanreqing injection and cefuroxime sodium injection against staphylococcus aureus was 1:256 and 2 μg·mL-1, respectively.While combined with each other,the MIC of tanreqing injection and cefuroxime sodium injection against staphylococcus aureus was 1:4 096 and 0.125 μg·mL-1, respectively.The FIC index of tanreqing injection combined with cefuroxime sodium injection against staphylococcus aureus was 0.125. Conclusion Tanreqing injection has a synergistic antibacterial effect against staphylococcus aureus when it was combined with cefuroxime sodium injection.
Infection diseases induced by bacteria continue to be one of the greatest health problems worldwide.In this framework, nanotechnology-based solutions, and in particular silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), have recently emerged as promising candidates in the market as new antibacterial agents because of the enhanced broad-range antibacterial/antiviral properties and low cost.Here we analyze the experimental conclusions on the bactericidal effects of AgNPs, and discuss the safety issues.
Combination chemotherapy and nanoparticle drug delivery are two promising strategies in cancer treatment.The use of multiple therapeutic agents in combination provides synergistic effects among different drugs against cancer cells and suppresses drug resistance through distinct mechanisms of action.Nanocarriers can improve anti-tumor effects of drugs and reduce systemic toxicity through delivering drugs into the tumor tissue specially.Recently, many studies are aiming to encapsulate multiple agents into nanocarriers to optimize the anti-tumor effects.In the present review, the recent advances of nanoparticle platforms applied with co-delivering two or more drugs were summarized and the various combination strategies based on nanoparticles in oncology were discussed.
Objective To research the microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Glechoma longituba. Methods In present study, the processes of extraction of polysaccharides from Glechoma longituba by water bath and microwave-assisted extraction were optimized using orthogonal test, and the two methods were compared. Results The optimal process of water bath extraction was as follows:liquid-solid ratio 50:1, time 180 min, temperature 90 ℃ and pH 8.0.The optimal parameters of microwave-assisted extraction were liquid-solid ratio 30:1, top microwave power, time 4 min, and pH 8.0.The yield of polysaccharides from Glechoma longituba by microwave-assisted and water bath methods was (4.58±0.09)% and (3.09±0.12)%, respectively, and the yield of microwave-assisted method was elevated by 48.2% compared with that of water bath extraction. Conclusion The microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Glechoma longituba not only improves the yield, but also reduces the extract volume, saves energy and time.
Objective Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the ultrasonic extraction conditions for flavonoids from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. Methods The influence factors of ultrasonic extraction were evaluated using the Box-Behnken central component experiments and analyzed by RSM. Results The optimum extraction conditions were confirmed as follows:extraction time 30.0 min, ratio of liquid to solid 21:1, concentration of ethanol 60%.The yield of flavonoids under this condition was (4.65±0.036)% (n=3). Conclusion The flavonoids could be extracted with stability and higher yield from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt under optimized conditions.
Objective Daidzein solid dispersions were prepared by solid dispersion technology to improve in vitro dissolution rate. Methods Daidzein solid dispersions were prepared by solvent method using polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30) as carrier.The in vitro dissolution characteristics of solid dispersions were evaluated,and the properties were detected by IR and XRD. Results The dissolution rates of different mass ratio of daidzein-PVP solid dispersion were significantly improved compared with that of daidzein API.The cumulative dissolution of solid dispersion with mass ratio of 1:6 within 30 minutes was up to 87.8%,equivalent to six times of API.The in vitro drug release kinetics were fitted mathematically to Korsemeyer-Peppas model. Conclusion Solid dispersion with PVP K30 as carrier could significantly improve dissolution rate of daidzein.
Objective To develop an UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneously determination of five components (adenosine,cytidine,guanosine,mannitol and adenine) in Qiangshenpaidu capsules. Methods The UPLC separation was performed on an Agilent ZOBAX SB-C18 (2.1 mm×150 mm,5 μm) column.Isocratic elution was carried out with mobile phase consisting of methanol- 0.1%formic acid (5:95) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL·min-1.The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive ionization electrospray (ESI) mode using multiple monitoring (MRM) for analysis of five components. Results Adenosine,cytidine,guanosine,mannitol and adenine were all analyzed with good precision and accuracy.The linear ranges were 35-1 120 ng·mL-1 (r=0.998 1),10-320 ng·mL-1 (r=0.996 4), 30-980 ng·mL-1 (r=0.999 3), 40-1 280 ng·mL-1 (r=0.993 4), 25-800 ng·mL-1 (r=0.996 5),respectively.The recoveries of six analytes ranged from 97.4% to 103.6% and the relative standard deviations were all below 4.7%. Conclusion A sensitive,accurate and suitable UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed,and the method could be applied for the determination of adenosine,cytidine,guanosine,mannitol,and adenine in Qiangshenpaidu Capsules.
Objective To establish the quality standard for Haijinhuwei powder. Methods Corydalis Rhizoma,Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix were identified by TLC.The content of tetrahydropalmatine was determined by HPLC. Results TLC spots were clear and specific.There was a good linear relationship between peak area and concentration of tetrahydropalmatine at the range of 10.78-107.8 μg·mL-1(r=0.999 9).The average recovery rate was 96.57% and RSD was 1.40%(n=6). Conclusion All these results indicated that the developed TLC-HPLC method was proved to be reliable, accurate and specific, which could be used for the quality control of Haijinhuwei powder.
Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of danhong injection combined with edaravone for acute cerebral infarction (ACI). Methods To search CBM、CNKI、VIP、WF、MEDLINE for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of related articles from inception to November 2014.After assessed the quality of studies included,RevMan5.2 software was used to analyze data. Results 23 studies,were included and 2 001 patients were involved.The results showed that the effective rate of danhong injection combined with edaravone for ACI was better than that of control group with statistical significance [RR=1.23,95%CI (1.17,1.29), P<0.000 01].Meta-analysis on the improvement of neurological deficit and activities of daily living also showed a better effectiveness of experimental group than control group with statistical significance [MD=-3.09,95%CI(-3.68,-2.50),P<0.000 01]; [MD=15.15,95%CI(12.69,17.62), P<0.000 01].But the result showed no statistical significance in safety evaluation of two groups [RR=1.88,95%CI(0.76,4.63),P=0.17]. Conclusion Although the results support the conclusion that danhong injection with edaravone is safe and superior to either danhong injection or edaravone or conventional treatment, further large sample and high quality randomized controlled trials should be carried out.
Objective To evaluate the effects of ulinastatin on perioperative inflammatory response during cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods Comprehensive search of PubMed,EMbase,the Cochrane Library,CECDB,CQVIP,CNKI databases was conducted for randomized controlled trials(RCTs) published from January 1994 to June 2014.The included studies were evaluated strictly and the extracted data were analyzed by RevMan 5.2. Results A total of 7 RCTs including 335 patients were included,and 154 patients were in the experimental group,while 181 patients were in the control group.In the experimental group, patients were given Ulinastatin during surgery.System evaluation results show that,the concentration of TNF-α [SMD(95%CI) were -3.48(-4.64,-2.31)] and IL-6 [SMD(95%CI) were -3.04(-4.54,-1.54)] in experimental group at 1 h after weaning from CPB were significantly lower than those in control group. Conclusion Ulinastatin used perioperatively in cardiopulmonary bypass can significantly reduce postoperative inflammation.