Calculus Bovis is a valuable traditional Chinese medicine and has been used for more than two thousand years in clinic with the effects of puring heart, sweeping phlegm, resuscitation, extinguishing wind and detoxification. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, modern methods have been utilized by traditional Chinese medicine researchers in the resource identification, chemical components, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacy, clinical application, etc. It is their continually exploration that makes significant achievements for the modern research of Calculus Bovis. This article statistically analysed the literatures from 1949 to December 2015 in Pubmed, CNKI, Wanfang, Vip database etc.to review Calculus Bovis and its compound formulas, as well as its substitutes, quality control, formulation study, compound prescription, pharmacological mechanism and clinical research. The aim of this article is to provide a valuable reference for future developments and studies of Calculus Bovis.
Objective To explore the effects and mechanism of ursolic acid (UA) on cholesterol metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and mouse hepatocyte AML-12. Methods HepG2 and AML-12 cells were treated with different concentrations of UA (0,10,20,40 μmol·L-1)for 24 h, then the mRNA and protein expression of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and intracellular cholesterol level was detected by RT-PCR、Western blotting and enzymatic method, respectively.Results Compared with 0 μmol·L-1 UA, 20 μmol·L-1 and 40 μmol·L-1 UA significantly increased the expressions of CYP7A1 mRNA and protein(P<0.05), and decreased intracellular cholesterol level in HepG2 and AML-12 cells (P<0.05). Conclusion A certain concentration of UA can reduce the level of cholesterol in HepG2 and AML-12 cells. CYP7A1 may be involved in the regulation process.
Objective To observe the protective effect and mechanism of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-D-glucoside (THSG) on atherosclerosis in ApoE konck-out mice. Methods A total of 24 ApoE knock-out mice were randomly divided into normal control group (n=8), model control group (HFD, high-fat diet, n=8) and treated group (THSG, 20 mg·kg-1, i.g., n=8). The atherosclerosic plaque of aorta wall and aorta root were measured by oil red O staining; The expression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) through C-reaction protein (CRP) was studied by Western blotting.Results The atherosclerosis plaque in normal control group was not observed. The lipid accumulation decreased in the aorta and the plaque areas in the aortic sinus in THSG treated-group compared with model control group. Moreover, THSG down-regulated CRP-induced LOX-1 expression in HUVEC. Conclusion The atheroscletosis plaque in ApoE knock-out mice was decreased by THSG. The mechanism might be related to the inhibition of the expression of LOX-1 protein.
Objective To observe the effect of qixiantang decoction on asthma model mice and to explore its mechanism of phosphatase gene (PTEN)-up-regulation. Methods A total of 28 healthy female BALB/c mice were divided into 4 groups according to the random number table(n=7): normal control group, model control group, qixiantang decoction group, and dexamethasone group. The mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) for asthma model. Qixiantang decoction group was treated with drug after OVA sensitization. Hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) staining was applied to observe the pulmonary inflammation in mice, and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining was used to examine airway mucus secretion. ELISA was used to detect the concentration of serum IgE. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to examine IL-13 and IL-5 gene expression changes in lung tissues of mice. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of PTEN and SIRT1 protein in lung tissues.Results The lung tissue inflammatory infiltration and mucus secretion in model control group were higher than normal control group (P<0.01), and that in the qixiantang decoction group. The level of serum IgE in model control group [(6.67±2.59) pg·mL-1)] was significantly higher than normal control group [(0.27±0.05) pg·mL-1, P<0.01] ,and that in the qixiantang decoction group [(3.52±1.44) pg·mL-1,P<0.05]. The expression of PTEN and SIRT1 in lung tissue of model control group were significantly lower than normal control group, and that of qixiantang decoction group. The expression of IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA of qixiantang decoction group was significantly lower (P<0.05). Conclusion Qixiantang decoction could significantly ameliorate inflammation in asthmatic mice by regulate IgE、IL-5、IL-13 expression,and might up-regulate PTEN expression via SIRT1 signal.
Objective To investigate the effects of S-allylcysteine (SAC), on nitric oxide (NO) production and antioxidant enzyme activities in hyperlipidemic rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Five groups including normal control group (normal diet), model control group (high-fat diet, HFD) and SAC low,medium,high treated group (high-fat diet+25,50,100 mg·kg-1SAC) were sacrificed after 4 weeks dosing,while the other two groups including L-arginine group (normal diet+ 20 mg·kg-1 L-arginine) and SAC+L-arginine group (50 mg·kg-1 SAC+20 mg·kg-1 L-arginine) were sacrificed at 4 h after dosing. The serum, livers and kidneys were collected. The levels of NO, the activities of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), antioxidant enzymes in vivo and L-arginine contents in serum were determined.Results Comparing with model control group, the activities of total NOS in serum and liver were significantly reduced in SAC-treated groups (P<0.05). The level of L-arginine in SAC-treated groups was (8.25±1.15), (7.76±1.24) and (7.22±1.64) μg·mL-1, respectively. Compared with model control group, the level of L-arginine were significantly reduced in SAC-treated groups (P<0.05). Comparing with L-arginine group, the activities of total NOS (T-NOS) and iNOS were reduced in SAC+L-arginine group. SAC treatment (100 mg·kg-1) significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.01) and the level of glutathione (GSH) (P<0.01), and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and liver of hyperlipidemic rats. Conclusion These data suggest that SAC inhibits the NO production by reducing iNOS activity, arginine concentration and exhibited antioxidant activity, which may play a pharmacologically important role in protection from oxidative injury and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
Objective To explore the effects and mechanisms of ursolic acid on drug-resistant SKOV3/DDP ovarian carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Methods The models of drug-resistant SKOV3/DDP ovarian carcinoma on athymic mouse were established and randomly divided into four groups with intraperitoneal injection of different drugs: blank control (0.9% sodium chloride solution), cisplatin (4 mg·kg-1·d-1), ursolic acid low dose (30 mg·kg-1·d-1), and high dose (60 mg·kg-1·d-1).All drugs were injected at volumes of 10 mL·kg-1 perday for 15 days. The tumor volumes were measured during the process of drug treatment every three days. After 14 days, The tumorigenic rate and tumor inhibition rate were calculated. RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax.Results Anti-tumor rates of cisplatin group , low dose ursolic acid group, and high dose ursolic acid group was 33.3%, 43.3%, and 71.0%, respectively. Bcl-2 expressions were down-regulated, while Bax expressions were up-regulated in all three groups. Conclusion Ursolic acid has some anti-tumor activity on cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer SKOV3 /DDP cell in nude mice.It can inhibit tumor growth with dose-effect relationship. The mechanism may be to suppress the expression of anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 and to increase the expression of apoptosis-promoting factors Bax.
Objective To investigate the effect of Zingiber corallinum oil(ZCO)on apoptosis and proliferation of cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa. Methods HeLa cells were treated with different concentrations of ZCO(5-80 mg·L-1)in vitro. Cytotoxicity rate was determined by CCK-8 assay. The morphological changes was observed using inverted microscope after AO/EB staining. Caspase-3 activities were measured with a colorimetric method. Protein level of hsp-70 were detected by Western blotting. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometer (FCM).Results ZCO exhibited effect of proliferation inhibition and apoptosis-inducing on the growth of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Caspase-3 activities increased in a dose-dependent manner while the expression of hsp-70 decreased. Cell cycle was arrested in G2/M phase. Conclusion ZCO exhibites a marked effect of proliferation inhibition and apoptosis-inducing on HeLa cells. The mechanism of ZCO might be activating the key enzyme in apoptotic pathway, so that the expression of hsp-70 is down-regulated, and cell cycle is arrested in G2/M phase.
Objective To investigate the effect of the optimal prescription of huiru yizeng on rats with hyperplasia of mammary gland and hyperprolactinemia. Methods Fifty-six female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=8), including normal control group, model control group, sodium chloride group, bromocriptin group, rupi sanjie group, the original prescription group and optimizing prescription group. Rat model of mammary gland hyperplasia with hyperprolactinemia was replicated in 6 groups but not the normal control group. The successfully established experimental rats were given corresponding drugs by intragastric gavage. After 30 days, the levels of the estradiol, progesterone, and prolactin were detected, and the pathomrphology of glandular tissue was observed.Results Prolactin levels of model control group, the original prescription group and optimize prescription group were (69.47±6.08), (53.13±10.59), and (28.41±6.37) pg·mL-1, respectively .Compared with that in the model control group, the contents of prolactin in both the optimal prescription group and the original prescription group were reduced, but the optimal prescription group was better (P<0.01).In the original prescription group, the lobules of mammary gland showed a few of hyperplasia, the individual alveoli and duct showed a slight hyperplasia, and a small amount of secretions was found in the duct. The degree of the hyperplasia was alleviated in the optimal prescription group similar to that observed in the normal control group, which showed that there was no hyperplasia in the lobules of mammary gland or no secretions in the duct. Conclusion The therapeutic effects of the optimal prescription are much better than the original prescription, which can effectively lower the level of prolactin, adjust the balance among the prolactin ,estrogen and progesterone, and alleviate the pathological hyperplasia of mammary glands in the model rats.
Objective To investigate the off-label use status in obstetrics ward so as to provide references for carrying out obstetrics pharmaceutical care and promoting safe medication use in pregnant and parturient women. Methods The prescriptions for pregnant and parturient women from January to June, 2015 in obstetrics ward were investigated. According to drug instructions, the off-label drug use of prescriptions of all selected patients was analyzed in the following aspects: the category of off-label drug use, and drugs use information. In addition, a logistic regression was conducted that modeled the odds of receiving an off-label prescription as a function of the following possible risk factors: pregnant, parturient women and the rank of doctors. The clinical results including the unreasonable drug application, abortion rate and birth defect were compared between the off-label drug use and on-label drug use groups.Results Total of 384 patients were selected, and 5 330 prescriptions involving 50 drugs were analyzed. The rate of off-label drug use was 68.5%, 27.7% and 24.0% in patients, prescriptions and drug categories, respectively. The main categories of off-label drug use were super solvent use (76.6%) and indication (14.3%). The top 3 drugs of off-label use were those for urinary and reproductive (56.2%), alimentary tract (46.9%) and traditional Chinese medicine (43.4%). In addition, there was no significant correlation between the risk of off-label drug use and maternal status and the level of doctors. And no significant difference between the two groups in the unreasonable drug application, abortion rate and birth defect was detected. Conclusion The off-label drug use in obstetrics ward is common in this hospital and most of them are supported by clinical evidence. Due to the lack of more authoritative evidence-based medication, the doctors are suggested to use the drug according to provisions of the drug instructions.When off-label drug use is really needed, it should be based on the surpport of evidence basde medicine,so as to ensure the drug safety for pregnant and parturient women and avoid professional risks.
Objective To understand the situation of off-label use of sildenafil, so as to provide reference for developing off-label drug use policy. Methods A stratified random sampling method was used to collect prescription data of sildenafil in Guangdong Women and Children Hospital in 2015.The off-label drug use situation was analyzed according to drug labels. The situations of drug use in all departments were summarized, and off-label drug use occurrences were analyzed.Results A total of 1 044 prescriptions with sildenafil were collected and analyzed to discover the occurrence of off-label use was up to 69.54%. The top 3 departments of off-label use of sildenafil were assisted reproductive center, heart center and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The top 3 types of off-label use were non-indication(50.35%), over drug population(31.76%)and over drug administration(17.89%). The top 3 diseases for non-indications were infertility, pulmonary hypertension and congenital heart disease. Conclusion Sildenafil off-label use was common in Guangdong Women and Children Hospital in 2015, especially in assisted reproductive center, heart center, and NICU. The result suggests that more clinical studies about sildenafil on cardiovascular system are expected to provide more evidence for drug use, so as to ensure the safety of drug use in special populations and avoid potential medical risk.
Objective To explore the role of clinical pharmacists in nutrition support therapy in the patients with hyperemesis gravidarum. Methods The clinical pharmacist played a positive role in nutrition support care of a patient with hyperemesis gravidarum by analysising disease characteristics and adverse drug reactions, providing suggestion on the selection of fat emulsion and offering an individualized pharmaceutical care.Results The clinical pharmacist recognized the potential risk in nutrition support plan, took modifications timely, and prevented the occurrence of unfavorable clinical outcomes. Conclusion The participation of clinical pharmacists in nutrition support therapy of the patients with hyperemesis gravidarum is beneficial to improve the efficacy and safety of nutrition support and promote the rational use of drugs.
Echinacoside has various pharmacological effects, such as antioxidative, antisenescence, neuroprotection, antiinflammation, promotion of cicatrization, hepatoprotection, promotion of bone formation, and antitumor activity. There are some progress in its pharmacokinetics study. Echinacea has therapeutic effect on diseases in various systems. It has great significance to further research and develop echinacoside.
Objective To establish an HPLC method to measure four flavonoids (baicalin, wogonoside,baicalein and wogonin) in shenyan siwei granules by quantitative analysis of multi-components with single marker(QAMS). Methods Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm) was used. The mobile phase was composed with methanol and 0.4% phosphoric acid solutionat at 1.0 mL·min-1 flow rate with gradient elution. The detection wavelength was 278 nm. Baicalin was used as the internal reference substance. The relative correction factors (RCF) between the baicalin and the other three flavonoids were established to detect the quantitation of baicalin and calculate the quantitation of the other three constituents.The external standard method was used for quantitating the four constituents,and the method was evaluated by comparing to the quantitative results between external standard method and QAMS method.Results The results of QAMS method had no significant difference with those of external standard method. Conclusion It is feasible and accurate to control the quality of shenyan siwei granules with QAMS.
Objective To establish a method for the quantitative determinations of the ingredients in yiqi hewei capsules. Methods RP-HPLC method was used.The separation was performed on a Thermo C18 column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water (20∶80) (pH was adjusted to 3 with glacial acetic acid) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1.The detection wavelength was 283 nm.Results The linear ranges were (0.573 5-5.736 0)×10-2 mg·mL-1 for baicalin,(0.194 0-1.939 5)×10-2 mg·mL-1 for hesperidin, (0.205 1-2.051 0)×10-3 mg·mL-1 for naringin and (0.202 0-2.020 0)×10-2 mg·mL-1 for neohesperidin;RSD=0.28%,0.54%,0.54%,0.31%(n=5),respectively. The average recoveries were 103.94%,98.06%,103.09%,95.67%,respectively. Conclusion The established method is simple,sensitive and accurate,which can be used for the quality control of yiqi hewei capsules.
Objective To prepare vardenafil hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets and evaluate their quality. Methods The tablets were prepared by direct power compression method, using crosslinking povidone (PVPP) as disintegrants. The preparation method was optimized by response surface test using amount of PVPP, menthol and taste-masking agents as factors with disintegrating time and distance of bitterness as index. The results of taste of orally disintegrating tablets were determined by electronic tongue, comparing to the results of taste tests. At the same time, the properties of the tablets were evaluated using appearance, content uniformity, disintegrating time, et al. as index.Results The optimal formula was as follows: PVPP 13.26%, menthol 0.43%, taste-masking agent SGxj 1.26%. The results on evaluation of electronic tongue were consistent with the results of taste tests. The quality of the prepared tablets was in line with standard. The disintegrating time was (22.34±0.34)s. Conclusion The preparation technology of orally disintegrating tablets is simple, and controllable in quality.
Objective To evaluate clinical use of tigecycline in hospital patients. Methods Basic diseases, pathologic examinations, concurrent medication, therapeutic efficacy and side effects of 40 patients in Lishui Central Hospital of Zhejiang Province from January 2012 to December 2014 were analyzed retrospectively.Results The effective rate of patients using tigecycline for anti-infection treatment in hospital was 42.5%. The rates of rational use, basically rational use and irrational use were 17.5%, 77.5% and 5.0%, respectively. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 6 cases of tigecycline use (15.0%). Conclusion Clinical use of tigecycline in inpatients was basically reasonable in this hospital. The clinical curative effect of tigecycline was good in a variety of infections caused by sensitive bacteria. However, the incidence of adverse drug reactions was high. Attentions should be paid in clinical application.
Objective To investigate the application of xingnaojing injections (XNJI) in inpatients and further provide a reference for the rational drug use. Methods The retrospective investigation was carried out by reviewing 186 hospitalization records with XNJI from a certain hospital from January 2014 to June 2015. The usage, dosage, and indication of XNJI were analyzed.Results Unlabeled use of XNJI was found in the neurology department inpatients. 59.7% inpatients were treated with overdosed XNJI, and 13.4% were treated with a single drug dose of 40 mL. The inappropriate solvent selection accounted for 49.5%. Compatibility of XNJI and western medicine injection accounted for 54.8%. It was also found that XNJI was used together with potassium chloride in clinic (47.8%). Conclusion There exist some irrational uses of XNJI in clinic, thus the use and management of traditional Chinese medicine injections should be standarized.
Objective To discuss the pharmaceutical care protocol and methods for clinical pharmacists taking part in cancer pain management. Methods A patient developed delirium and drowsiness after using oxycodone hydrochloride prolonged-release tablet (OXYCONTIN) and morphine hydrochloride tablet for pain titration treatment. The clinical pharmacist analyzed the reasons of delirium and drowsiness,and suggested a dose reduction of OXYCONTIN or converting OXYCONTIN to another opioid analgesic.Results The suggestion of the clinical pharmacist was partly accepted. After adjusting the treatment,the delirium and drowsiness disappeared gradually,and the pain was well controlled. Conclusion In clinical practice, especially when faced with a rare adverse drug reaction, clinical pharmacists are helpful for ensuring the safety and effectiveness in pain management, as well as improving the level of the treatment, by the implementation of individualized drug therapy.
Objective To summarize the method and experience of pharmaceutical care for a patient with insulin resistant. Methods The rationality of the treatment plan was analyzed by the clinical pharmacist, and the entire pharmaceutical care process was implemented to the patient.Results Doctors took the advice of clinical pharmacists, perfected the treatment plan. The treatment was safe and effective. The patient was discharged with a better health condition. Conclusion Clinical pharmacist integrates in the treatment team,and to promote the rational use of drugs.
Objective To develop transparency measurement scale on medicine use information in primary health care facilities. Methods The dimensions and items of scale were determined through literature review and expert consultation. The scale was used to investigate 100 primary health care facilities in eastern, central and western regions. Correlation coefficient analysis, Cronbach's coefficient, and exploratory factor analysis were used to select items. Five dimensions and 20 items were selected for the final scale. Cronbach's coefficient was used to evaluate the reliability of the formal scale. Factor analysis was used for construct validity evaluation.Results Dimensions were measured, including service processes, organization and regulation for pharmacy administration, patients informing and education, medicine catalogue, and the economic burden of patients. The scale had good reliability since overall Cronbach coefficient was 0.844. Factor analysis extracted five common factors, total explaining 89.69% of the cumulative variance, and the item distribution in five common factors was completely consistent with formal scale, indicating good construct validity. Conclusion This scale had good reliability and validity as a measurement tool to evaluate the transparency level of primary health care facilities in China.