Objective Regenerating genes express mainly in gastrointestinal tissues and the injured regenerating pancreatic tissues,which can promote the regeneration of pancreatic β cells and other tissue cells.In recent years,researches on Reg family mainly involved the gene structure of various subtypes of Reg,and its role in diabetes,gastrointestinal cancer,inflammation,anti-microbial and the related mechanisms.Among the various subtypes of Reg,regenerating geneⅢ(Reg3) plays a particularly crucial role in these diseases.Therefore,Reg3 is a promising target for the treatment of these diseases.Based on the relationships of Reg3 with a variety of diseases,our group devote to the role of Reg3 [human REG3A,and mouse Reg3γ(Reg3g)] in type 1 diabetes,inflammation-linked pancreatic carcinogenesis,and the immunological changes participated in these processes.Hence,this review will summarize serial studies on Reg3 and the feasibility of it as drug targets.
Objective To explore the expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase(ALK) in human ovarian serous adenocarcinoma cell line SKOV3 and to further investigate the effect of crizotinib on SKOV3 cells. Methods The expression of ALK in SKOV3 cells were examined by Western blotting and immunocytochemical methods,and the effect of ALK inhibitor crizotinib on proliferation of SKOV3 cells were evaluated by cell proliferation assay. Results Both Western blotting and immunocytochemical methods showed the expression of ALK in SKOV3 cells.The results of cell proliferation assay suggested that the cell viability of SKOV3 cells was close to 1 when the drug concentration was less than 106 nmol·L-1,and close to 64% when the drug concentration was up to 107nmol·L-1. Conclusion ALK is overexpressed in human ovarian serous adenocarcinoma cell line SKOV3,but SKOV3 cells were insensitive to the therapy of ALK inhibitor crizotinib.
Objective To evaluate the effect of fingolimod(FTY720) on angiotensin Ⅱ(AngⅡ)-induced renal oxidative stress in rats and its possible mechanisms. Methods Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups through random number tables:AngⅡ infusion group(twelve rats,infusion of AngⅡvia subcutaneous osmotic pumps),0.9% sodium hydrochloride solution infusion group(twelve rats,infusion of equal volume of 0.9% sodium hydrochloride solution via subcutaneous osmotic pumps) and FTY720 intervention group(twelve rats,intra-gastric administration of FTY720 besides AngⅡ infusion).Urine samples were collected for 24 hours every week.Blood samples and kidneys were collected when rats were sacrificed at day 14 and 28 d respectively.MDA and T-SOD assay Kits were used to detect the concentrations of MDA and T-SOD in serum and kidney homogenates.Renal pathological changes were observed by light microscope.The expression of Nox4 in the kidneys was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with 0.9% sodium hydrochloride solution infusion rats of the same period,AngⅡ-infused rats developed significant proteinuria.The concentration of serum creatinine,urea nitrogen,AngⅡ and MDA were increased(P<0.05),T-SOD was significantly decreased on days 14 and 28(P<0.05),the serum albumin was significantly increased on day 28(P<0.05),while FTY720 partially reversed these changes.The renal tissue of AngⅡ-infused rats presented mesangial cells proliferation,mesangial matrix deposition,tubular epithelial cells effacement,sclerosis and atrophy in part of the glomerular.FTY720 can alleviate these changes.Immunohistochemistry showed that Nox4 was primarily located in the distal tubule.The expression of Nox4 was significantly increased in AngⅡ-infused rats as compared with that of 0.9% sodium hydrochloride solution infused group rats,and FTY720 administration prevented the change effectively. Conclusion AngⅡ-induced renal injury could be attenuated by FTY720 via preventing oxidative stress.
Objective To evaluate the uncertainty for the determination of salicylic acid in human plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography(UPLC). Methods All sources of uncertainty in the whole process of salicylic acid determination were analyzed,then the combined and expanded uncertainty were evaluated. Results The expanded uncertainty at concentrations of the lowest limit of quantitation(0.23 μg·mL-1) and a high level(39.43 μg·mL-1) of salicylic acid(P=95%,k=2) was 0.014 and 7.34 μg·mL-1,respectively. Conclusion The uncertainty of salicylic acid determination in human plasma by UPLC was mainly caused by recovery,repeatability and sample preparation at the lowest limit of quantitation and high qulity control concentration.
Objective To observe the effect of Puerarin on the level of tau phosphorylation in the olfactory bulb of Alzheimer's disease rat brain, and explore the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods ① Twenty-two male SD rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, model control group and Puerain-treated group.The levels of tau-1, PS396 and tau-5 in the olfactory bulb were detected by Western blotting.② Twenty male SD rats were randomly divided into model control group, low-dose Puerarin (40 mg·kg-1·d-1), medium-dose puerarin (80 mg·kg-1·d-1) and high-dose puerarin (160 mg·kg-1·d-1) groups.The levels of tau-1 and PS396 phosphorylation in the olfactory bulb were detected by Western blotting.③ The level of GSK-3β phosphorylation in the olfactory bulb of the normal control group, model control group A and puerain-treated group was detected by Western blotting. Results ① It was shown by Western blotting that the relative expression of tau-1 was significantly decreased in the olfactory bulb of the model group A(0.49±0.07)rat brain compared with the normal control group(0.85±0.03)(P<0.01), and the level of tau-1 was obviously higher in the puerarin-treated group(0.58±0.03)compared with that of the model group A(P<0.05).The differences of the levels of tau-5 and PS396 in the olfactory bulb were insignificant among the 3 groups.②Compared with the model group B, the expression of tau-1 in the olfactory bulb was significantly enhanced in the low-, medium- and high-dose of puerarin group: (0.39±0.09)vs(0.69±0.11),(0.55±0.11),(0.70±0.04); and the level of PS396 was significantly decreased in the olfactory bulb of low-dose puerarin group(0.36±0.07) compared with the model group B(0.55±0.05)(P<0.01).③Compared with the normal control group(0.96±0.07), the ratio of pS9-GSK-3β/tGSK-3β was obviously decreased in the olfactory bulb of the model group A(0.51±0.12),while that was significantly increased in the puerarin group(0.62±0.03) compared with the model group A(P<0.01). Conclusion Puerarin can attenuate AD-like tau hyperphosphorylation in the olfactory bulb of Alzheimer's disease rat brains, and decreased activity of GSK-3β might be involved in the effects of puerarin on tau hyperphosphorylation.
Objective To observe the protective effect of meicha protein on the heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR),and explore its mechanism. Methods Fourty healthy SHR rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:model control group,Meicha protein low dose group(70 mg·kg-1)、Meicha protein high dose group(140 mg·kg-1),Compound Kendir Leaves Tablets group(50 mg·kg-1),n=10.The rats were orally administered twice daily by gavage for seven weeks,measuring blood pressure in each group fort nightly.1 h after the last administration,drawing off the blood from carotid,stripping off the heart tissue,and the organ index was calculated; Taking a part of the tissue with 4% paraformaldehyde for Pathological histology.Detection of serum NO,ET-1 levels as well as the organization of the ACE and Ang II mRNA expression to explore the mechanism of its buck. Results Meicha protein could significantly reduce the blood pressure of SHR; The impact on the rat organ coefficient was not obvious,but had a protective effect on heart tissue.Compared with the model control group,the contents of NO an ET-1 were significantly increased(P<0.01).Compared with the model group,the high dose of Meicha protein could induce ACE,AngⅡ,CYP11B2.The expression of mRNA was significantly decreased(P<0.01). Conclusion The possible mechanism of Meicha protein antihypertensionis relevant to increase the content of NO in serum,reduce the content of ET-1 in serum,reduce mRNA expression of ACE and AngⅡin cardiac tissue.
Objective To explore the bioactive constituents of Gentiana rhodantha for its serum pharmacochemistry research. Methods The blood migrating constituents of Gentiana rhodantha were determined by comparing the HPLC fingerprints of the aqueous extracts,drug contained serum and blank serum. Results Twenty compounds were detected in drug contained serum,four among which were original constituents of Gentiana rhodantha,the rest might be metabolites of the original ingredients. Conclusion These twenty constituents absorbed in blood could be the bioactive components of Gentiana rhodantha.Further studies will be useful to clarify the bioactive constituents and action mechanisms of Gentiana rhodantha.
Objective To compare the effects of Huiru Yizeng granules Huiru yizeng original decoctin on hyperplasia of mammary glands with hyperprolactinemia in serum and pathological morphology of mammary glands tissue. Methods Seventy rats were randomly divided into 7 groups:normal control group,model control group,Huiru yizeng granules group,Huiru yizeng original decoctin group,Rubisanjie group,bromocriptine group and accessories group.After sucessfully modeling hyperplasia of mammary glandsin rats with hyperprolactinemia,Huiru yizeng granules group was administrated 17.22 g·kg-1·d-1,Huiru yizeng original decoctin group was administrated 20.08 g·kg-1·d-1,Rubi sanjie group was administrated 0.416 mg·kg-1·d-1,bromocriptine group was administrated 0.393 mg·kg-1·d-1.These groups were intragastric administration 2 mL every day for 30 consecutive days.The morphology of pathological tissue in mammary gland was observed by microscope.The levels of prolactin(PRL),progesterone(P),estradiol(E2) were determined by ELISA kit. Results Compared with the model group,Huiru yizeng granules group[PRL=(22.74±4.74) pg·mL-1,P=(46.91±2.85) ng·mL-1,E2=(99.96±9.61) pg·mL-1],Huiru yizeng original decoction group[PRL=(28.41±6.37) pg·mL-1,P=(43.91±4.17) ng·mL-1,E2=(105.02±3.05) pg·mL-1] and bromocriptine group[PRL=(23.58±4.10) pg·mL-1,P=(45.99±2.95) ng·mL-1,E2=(98.04±9.98) pg·mL-1]showed significant decrease in PRL,E2 levels,obvious increase in P(P<0.01).In Huiru yizeng granules group,Huiru yizeng original decoction group and bromocriptine group,PRL,P,and E2 returned to normal level after 30 days,and hyperplasia of mammary glands tissue had great ease.Huiru yizeng original decoction group was Ⅰ to Ⅱ hyperplasia,and Huiru yizeng granules group was 0 or Ⅰ hyperplasia.Compared with each other,the effect of Huiru yizeng granules on the mammary gland proliferation inhibition was superior to Huiru yizeng original decoction group. Conclusion On the treatment of hyperplasia of mammary glands and hyperprolactinemia,Huiru yizeng granules were better than Huiru yizeng original decoction.
Objective To investigate the effect of tripterygium glycosides on the resistance to immune rejection after allogeneic islet transplantation in mice. Methods Twenty C57BL/6 mice were treated with STZ diabetes mellitus and transplanted the islets from Balb/c mice donor,then recipient mice were randomly divided into two groups:triptolide group and model control group(n=10),and were intraperitoneal injected with tripterygium glycoside solutin and equivalent solvent of 5 mg·kg-1·d-1 for 14 days.Blood glucose and body weight were measured within 4 weeks after transplantation.Two weeks later,two groups of grafted islets were stained by HE staining and immunohistochemical staining,the expression of IL-2 protein were detected by Western blotting. Results The level of blood glucose were decreased to normal in the triptolide group and model control group after islet transplantation,but blood glucose gradually increased in the model control group after two weeks.Compared with the model control group,the inflammatory cells were less infiltrated and the immunohistochemical staining of insulin was deeper in the triptolide group.The expression of IL-2 in the triptolide group was significantly decreased(P<0.05). Conclusion Tripterygium glucoside could significantly decrease the inflammatory cell infiltration and inflammation factor expression in the allogeneic islet recipients to reduce the immune rejection and improve graft survival.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral ginkgo biloba extract EGB761 in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Methods They searched PubMed,Embase,the Cochrane Library ,CNKI,Wanfang and VIP databases for randomly controlled trials of oral ginkgo biloba extract for mild cognitive impairment.After assessed the quality of studies included,RevMan5.2 software was used to analyze data. Results Seven studies which including 815 patients were involved by our inclusion criteria.The results of meta-analysis showed,compared with the control group,ginkgo biloba was superior in improving mild cognitive impairment patients' MMSE level[MD=1.81,95%CI(0.02,3.60),P=0.05;MD=1.96,95%CI(1.48,2.43),P<0.000 01;MD=1.79,95%CI(0.99,2.58),P<0.000 1] after treated three months、six months and twelve months. Ginkgo biloba was also superior in improving mild cognitive impaimant patients.CDT level[MD=0.43,95%CI(0.30,0.57),P<0.000 01;MD=0.57,95%CI(0.39,0.75),P<0.000 01] after treated six months and twelve months.The effect of preventing MCI patients into dementia was better than that of the control group[RR=0.27,95%CI(0.06,1.27),P=0.10;RR=0.32,95%CI(0.16,0.63),P=0.001]after treated six months and twelve months. Conclusion Oral preparation of ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of MCI clinical efficacy and prevention of dementia occurrence rate was better than that of blank control group.
Objective Supramolecular hydrogels were the hydrogels consisting of a solid 3D network with noncovalent bonds.Its unique properties such as biocompatibility,biodegradability,free sol-gel transformation and stable drug release ability make it widely exploited for various biomedical applications.This paper mainly focused on the use of supramolecular hydrogels in all types of biomedical application such as biosensor,cell culture,tissue engineering,gene engineering and drug delivery by research literature reviews.They hope that this focus review will contribute topromote the use of supramolecular hydrogels.
Objective To select the optimal preparation technology of zucapsaicin cream and compare it with zuacta cream. Methods Cold stability,thermal stability,centrifugal stability,and appearance were used as indicators to select the ratio of prescription.In this study preparation technology was optimize by using orthogonal experiment method,and transdermal absorption of the homemade zucapsaicin cream and zucata cream were investigated by employing modified Franz diffusion pool. Results The optimized preparation technology was as follows,emulsifying temperature was maintained at 70 ℃,the stirring speed was set at 2 000 r·min-1,the main medicine was added into the oil phase,emulsifying time was 30 min.The results showed that there was no significant difference between the homemade zucapsaicin cream and the reference Zuacta cream. Conclusion The homemade zucapsaicin were tested to have reasonable ratio of prescription,stability,and definite transdermal effect,which was basically in accordance with zuacta cream.
Objective To establish the quality standards system of “A system to multiple evaluation” on Yinxing huonao capusle,and discuss the feasibility of the method whether “A system to multiple evaluation” to be used for traditional Chinese medicine quality standard. Methods Identification of the Yinxing huonao capusle by TLC method was established by one thin layer chromatography system.HPLC was used to detect 6 types of the primary active components in Yinxing huonao capusle. Results 5 types of the primary active components were synchronize identified by one thin layer system.The color of spots was clear and had a good separation effect.6 kinds of the primary active components were synchronize detected by one system with high accuracy. Conclusion The established method “A system to multiple evaluation” can be used for the study of the quality standards system of Yinxing huonao capusle.
Objective To develop a method for detection of avanafil and flibanserin adulterated in health food by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS/MS). Methods The separation and analysis were performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column(2.1 mm×100 mm,1.8 μm),with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1%acetic acid(containing 20 mmol·L-1 ammonium acetate)(60:40).Electrospray ionization(ESI) source was applied and operated in positive mode.Multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode was used to quantify avanafil and flibanserin. Results The assay linearity of avanafil and flibanserin were confirmed in the range of 2—20 ng·mL-1(r2>0.99).The extraction recoveries varied from 94.6% to 110.0%,and the precision of RSD was <5.0%.The limits of detection were 0.21 and 0.42 μg·kg-1 for avanafil and flibanserin,respectively. Conclusion The method was specific,sensitive and accurate.Therefore,it can be used to detect avanafil and flibanserin which were illegally added in health food.
Objective To establish the quality standard of Fengshi Bitong Capsule. Methods Notopterygh Rhizoma,Angelicae Pubescentis,and Saposhnikoviae Radix were identified by thin layer chromatography(TLC).Aconitine limit test in this drug also carried out by TLC.The contents of Isoimperatorin in the Notopterygh Rhizoma were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Results The spots in the TLC were fairly clear and no interference was shown in the blank samples.The aconitine limited in conformity with the 《Chinese Pharmacopoeia》 2010. Isoimperatorin showed a good linear relationship within a range of 3.668 96-183.448 00 μg· mL-1(r=1).The average of recovery was 96.42%,RSD=2.64%,respectively. Conclusion The established methods are highly specific,stable and reproducible,which can be used as quality control of fengshi bitong capsule.
Objective To compare the differences between external standard method and relative correction factor method for determination of the flavonoids from Sorbus tianschanica Rupr. Methods Using HPLC external standard method for determination of hyperoside,rutin,isoquercitrin,quercetin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-β-D-glucoside,astragalin and Kaempferol-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside in Sorbus tianschanica Rupr.,HPLC relative correction factor method was adopted to establish relative correction factor of the other five flavonoids above with hyperoside as reference.The difference was evaluated by comparing the external standard method with the relative correction factor method. Results There was no significant difference between the T test external standard method and relative correction factor method(P>0.05). Conclusion External standard method and relative correction factor method can be used for determination of the flavonoids from Sorbus tianschanica Rupr.,but in the case of lack of reference substance or mass detection,using the relative correction factor method for determination of rutin,hyperoside isoquercitrin,quercetin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-β-D-glucoside,astragalin and kaempferol-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside in Sorbus tianschanica Rupr. It was more feasible and it can be used as a new quality evaluation method in determination of flavonoid components from Sorbus tianschanica Rupr.
Objective To establish the characteristic spectrum of ginkgo leaf tablets,ginkgo leaf capsules,and ginkgo leaf dropping pills. Methods HPLC-ELSD analysis was performed on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column(150 mm×4.6 mm,2.7 μm)with the methanol-0.1% formic acid as mobile phase at the gradient elution mode,flow rate was 0.8 mL·min-1. Results Referring to the reference extract,a total of 12 peaks were established in the characteristic spectrum and selected as the characteristic common peaks. Conclusion The established method was simple and sensitive with good reproducibility,so it could be used to control the quality of ginkgo leaf preparations.
Objective To establish a mini-column centrifugation-HPLC method to determine the entrapment efficiency of levodopa-loaded PEGylated-solid lipid nanoparticles. Methods A dextran gel(Sephadex G-50) mini-column centrifugation was employed to separate the free drug from solid lipid nanoparticles.The content of levodopa was qualified by HPLC. Results Under the applied chromatographic condition,the excipients had no influence on the determination of levodopa.A calibrated linear of levodopa concentration was within 10.54-527.00 μg·mL-1.The recoveries of high,medium and low concentrations of levodopa were 99.13%,99.51% and 99.04%(RSD were 1.25%,1.91% and 1.71%), respectively.The free levodopa was well separated from solid lipid nanoparticles by using mini-column centrifugation.The addition of blank solid lipid nanoparticles recovery was 98.84% with RSD of 0.80%(n=3).The average adsorption rates of the three concentrations of free levodopa were 100.00%,98.75% and 98.56%(RSD were 0.00%,0.19% and 0.18%,n=3),respectively.The adsorption rate of the physical mixtures of three different concentrations of drugs and empty PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles were 99.68%,98.46% and 99.21%(RSD were 1.52%,0.23% and 0.21%),respectively. Conclusion The method was simple,accurate and reproducible,which can be used for determination of the entrapment efficiency of levodopa-loaded PEGylated-solid lipid nanoparticles.
Objective To systematically evaluate the effects of albumin compared with crystalloids on fluid resuscitation for adults with severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods The six databases as follows:Cochrane Library,Pubmed,Embase,CNKI,VIP and Wanfang,were retrieved by computer,from their inception to November,2015.Randomized controlled trials(RCT) in the treatment of adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock were included for quality assessment and Meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan5.3 software. Results A total of 4 RCTs involving 3 862 participants were included.No differences were found between albumin and crystalloids resuscitation with respect to 28-day mortality[RR=0.95,95%CI(0.86,1.05),P=0.33],90-day mortality[RR=0.95,95%CI(0.86,1.05),P=0.33],duration of stay in ICU,duration of hospital stay,duration of mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy. Conclusion In that meta-analysis,the effects of fluid resuscitation with albumin or crystalloids were not significantly different in adults with severe sepsis and septic shock.
Objective To analyze the effect of clinical pharmacists involving in JCI clinical care program certification-AMI(CCPC-AMI) on the compliance rates of clinical drug treatment guideline and the awareness rates of patient medication health education in cardiovascular. Methods Selected cases of acute myocardial infarction(AMI) from March to August in 2015 was as the former group,from September 2015 to March 2016 as the latter group in their hospital,then comparative analysis of two groups was done by statistical method. Results After clinical pharmacists involved in CCPC-AMI,the compliance rates of AMI clinical drug treatment guidelines (after the AMI diagnosis, the 10min was given aspirin, intensified statin therapy and dose selection, the use of ACEI/ARB before discharge and the use of beta blocker before discharge) were increased from 92.7% 67.9%,60.7%,51.8% to 98.1%,85.2%,94.4%,90.7%.The awareness rates of patient medication health education (awareness of safe medication, awareness of self-management, awareness of follow-up knowledge) were all increased to 100% from 75.0%,57.1%,82.1% before participation. Conclusion Clinical pharmacists who carried out pharmaceutical care,has played a critical role in quality control of AMI single disease through the preparing of CCPC-AMI evaluation.