With the deepening medical reform, people pay more attention to achieve excellent medical quality, reasonable cost and thoughtful medical service, which were the core indicators for the success of medical reform, but also were the basic requirements which medical reform should achieve.For strengthening the management of medical quality and improving medical quality, it was necessary to further develop the pharmaceutical department of medical institute and pharmaceutical care, which plays an important role in the improvement of rational use of drugs in clinical practice.With the deepening of the medical reform, graded medical system will be constantly realized and capacity of pharmaceutical care of the primary health care should be enhanced immediately.We should pay more attention to the special diseased population, which was also one of the key tasks of strengthening clinical pharmacy services.
Objective To explore the therapeutic regimens and contraception methods in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with planned pregnancy . Methods Case report of a SLE patient expecting her second child and review of relevant literature were presented.The prognosis for pregnancy in SLE patients was discussed, the safety profile of medications used to treat SLE during pregnancy was analyzed and the efficacy, side effects of different contraceptive methods were compared. Results For SLE patients with high disease activity, the use of progestin-only contraceptives were advised to avoid thromboembolic risk and risk of disease flare.Patients were usually treated with high doses of systemic glucocorticoids in combination with mycophenolate mofetil (induction therapy) to control the disease.Pregnancy should be avoided until the disease was inactive for at least six months with a low-dose glucocorticoid (eg, 5 to 15 mg of prednisone per day).Azathioprine (not exceed 2 mg·kg-1·d-1) for maintaining remission was considered relatively safe during pregnancy, the use of cyclosporine or tacrolimus may also be acceptable in patients intolerant to azathioprine. Conclusion Ideally, all pregnancies in patients with SLE should be planned during periods of disease quiescence for at least six months.The safety and efficacy of medications and contraceptive methods must be reviewed and adjusted prior to conception with the goal of maintaining disease control and optimizing maternal outcomes.
Objective To study polymorphism of the free radical scavenger edaravone and to find the one which has good advantages to the clinical medication. Methods Preparation of four forms of edaravone through kinds of physical or chemical methods. These polymorphs were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction method (SXRD), powder X-ray diffraction method (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry method (DSC), infrared spectrum method (IR) and melting point method (MP); a variety of influence factors experiment were used to research the stability of polymorphs. Solid edaravone in different forms were orally administered to SD rats respectively, the plasma concentration of the drug was determined by HPLC, and the pharmacokinetic characteristic of different forms was compared according to the HPLC results. Results Four forms(form A, form B, form C, form D)and the preparation of pure crystal forms were obtained by crystal screening technology. These polymorphs were identified by PXRD, DSC and IR. The edaravone polymorphs have an influence on the stability and pharmacokinetic. Conclusion Edaravone research provideds a variety of crystal material composition, preparation methods, stability, solubility and pharmacokinetic characteristic, and form A has been proved of good advantage one. This research provides data and technology support for choice of preponderant pharmaceutical polymorphs and drug quality standard improvement.
Objective To study the effect of allicin (All) on potassium current in single atrial myocytes in rats. Methods Isolated rat atrial myocytes were isolated by perfusion and administered by extracellular perfusion method.Whole cell patch clamp technique was used to record transient outward potassium current (Ito) in atrial myocyte. Results In presence of 30 μmol·L-1 of All,the peak current of Ito was significantly reduced from (20.5±2.2) pA/pF to (11.3±2.1) pA/pF at +50 mV of test potential (P<0.01,n=12).This effect of All showed voltage- and concentration-dependence with IC50 of (19.0±2.5) μmol·L-1.The steady-state activation curve of Ito was shifted to more positive potential and recovery time from inactivation was prolonged.In addition, they fail to find any effect of All on the steady-state inactivation and closed-state inactivation of Ito. Conclusion All can inhibit Ito by slowing down the process of activation and recovery from inactivation of channel.
Objective To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride(Dex) preconditioning on renal function in rats after renal ischemia reperfusion injury under high glucose condition. Methods SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: NG-Sham operated group,NG-I/R group, NG-Dex group,HG-Sham operated group,HG-I/R group,HG-Dex group. Renal ischemia reperfusion model was established except Sham groups. Dex 50 μg·kg-1 was injected intraperitoneally 30 min before ischemia in the Dex preconditioning group,25% glucose 3 g·kg-1 was given intraperitoneally before the renal ischemia reperfusion model was established in high glucose groups. Blood glucose and renal function of each group were detected . Renal pathologic changes were observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Apoptosis of renal tissue was detected by TUNEL method. Results BUN,Cr and apoptosis rate in NG-I/R group were higher than those in NG-Sham operated group (P<0.05); BUN,Cr and apoptosis rate in NG-Dex group were lower than those in NG-I/R group (P<0.05); BUN,Cr and apoptosis rate in HG-I/R group and HG-Dex group were higher than those in NG-I/R group and NG-Dex group,respectively (P<0.05); However,there was no significant difference between HG-I/R group and HG-Dex group (P>0.05). Conclusion Dex has a protective effect on renal function after renal ischemia reperfusion,but this effect is inhibited in high glucose condition,which may relate to the increasing of kidney cells apoptosis.
Objective To study whether crystal-8 exerts analgesic effect on the central nervous system,and to observe the relationship between crystal-8 and receptors. Methods A total of 32 SD rats were randomly divided into the 0.9% sodium chloride solution group, positive control group (rotundine 2 mg·kg-1), high dose of crystal-8 group (2 mg·kg-1)and low dose of crystal-8 group (1 mg·kg-1).The changes of pain threshold were measured by the thermal stimulation test following intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection.The SD rats or mice were randomly divided into the 0.9% sodium chloride solution group, receptor tool medicine group (including naloxone, reserpine, haloperidol, scopolamine), crystal-8 group, receptor tool medicine plus crystal-8 group.The pain threshold was detected by the thermal stimulation test at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 min after dosing, then the influence of analgesic effect of crystal-8 on the neurotransmitter was observed. Results Compared with the 0.9% sodium chloride solution group, the pain threshold of rats was improved after taking the crystal-8 by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection(P<0.01).Compared with the crystal-8 group, the naloxone plus crystal-8 group, the haloperidol plus crystal-8 group, the scopolamine plus crystal-8 group couldn’t increase the pain threshold, there was no significant difference among these groups(P>0.05).However, Reserpine plus crystal-8 group could significantly decrease the pain threshold in rats compared with the crystal-8 group(P<0.01).The analgesic effect of crystal-8 was interfered by reserpine. Conclusion The analgesic effect of crystal-8 may be involved in the central mechanism,which relates to monoamine neurotransmitters, but has nothing to do with the opioid receptor, M receptor, and the inhibition of central DA receptor.
Objective To observe the effect of Yidutiaogan mixture on rat liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 complex factors. Methods Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model control group, colchicine group(0.2 mg·kg-1), Yidutiaogan mixture low-, medium-, and high-dose groups(2.7, 5.4, 10.8 mL·kg-1) (n=10).Except for normal control group, the other groups were given drinking water containing 10% ethanol, subcutaneous injection of 40%CCl4 in olive oil (3 mL·kg-1,twice weekly), and high-fat diet for 8 weeks as the model control group, and they were given relevant medicine intragastrically once a day during modeling.The rats were sacrificed, and the livers were harvested and stained with Masson staining to observe liver fibrosis.Serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ALB, HA, LN, PCⅢ, C-Ⅳ, and the levels of TIMP-1, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-13, and TGF-β1in liver tissue were detected by biochemical assay, radioimmunoassay and ELISA. Results Compared with normal control group, serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, HA, LN, PCⅢ, and C-Ⅳ were significantly increased in model control group, while serum level of ALB was significantly decreased (P<0.01); the levels of TIMP-1, MMP-2 and TGF-β1in liver tissue were significantly increased, while the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-13 were significantly decreased (P<0.01).Compared with the model control group, serum levels of ALT, AST, HA, LN, PCⅢ, and C-Ⅳ as well as the levels of TIMP-1, MMP-2, and TGF-β1in liver tissue were all significantly decreased in Yidutiaogan mixture medium-dose, high-dose, and colchicine groups(P<0.05); serum level of ALB as well as the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-13 in liver tissue were significantly increased(P<0.05).However, there was no statistical significance in above indexes in Yidutiaogan mixture low-dose group(P>0.05). Conclusion Yidutiaogan mixture could be used to prevent experimental hepatic fibrosis through regulating TIMPs/MMPs, suppressing TGF-β1, reducing deposition of extracellular matrix in liver.
Objective To research the influence of Alismatis combined with bifendate on cytochrome P450 in rat liver microsomes. Methods Twenty four healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: the experimental groups were given Alismatis at 140 mg·kg-1, bifendateat 2.18 mg·kg-1, and Alismatis plus bifendate at 140 mg+2.18 mg·kg-1,while the blank control group was given 0.9% sodium chloride at 5 mL·kg-1.The liver microsomes were prepared upon differential centrifugation 7 days after administration.The microsomal protein concentration, cytochrome P450 content, Cytb5 content, NADPH cytochrome C reductase activity and amino pyrine N removal of methyl enzyme activity, erythromycin demethylase activity were determined by UV respectively. Results Compared with the normal control group, the combination use of Alismatis and bifendate redued the microsome content and cytochrome P450 content, while it increased the NADPH cytodrome C activity.The concentrations of cytochrome P450 were both increased by Alismatis and bifendate. Conclusion In contrast, combination of Alismatis and bifendate reduces cytochrome P450 content which has a negative effect on phase I drug metabolism.Moreover, the combination of Alismatis and bifendate induced NADPH- cytochrome C reductase, accelerated the reduction of cytochrome P450 and inhibited cytochrome P450 isoform CYP2E1 activity.
Objective To evaluate the safety of Solanumprocumbens by studying its acute toxicity to mice. Methods The dosage of 100% death (Dm) and 100% survive (Dn) were determined. Five groups were set between the dosage of Dm and Dn in a 1:0.8 ratio, and then were intragastrically administrated once at the dosage of 250,200,160,128,102.4 g·kg-1 respectively.Toxicity and mortality of mice after intragastricly administration of Solanumprocumbens were observed for 14 days continuously. Results After four hours of administration, there were death in each group except the lowest dosage group(102.4 g·kg-1).Number of death of the groups 250,200,160 and 128 g·kg-1 were 10,8,6 and 3 respectively.LD50 of Solanumprocumbens was 153.02 g·kg-1,the 95% confidence interval was (136.55,171.47) g·kg-1. Conclusion Solanumprocumbens has a certain toxicity.More attention should be payed to its toxicity for clinical rational drug use.
Objective To investigate the enhancing radiosensitization effect of metformin on cervical cancer Hela cell and to explore its mechanism. Methods The radiosensitization effect was observed by Clone forming assay;Hela cell cycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry method; Apoptotic changes was measured by fluorescence microscope and DAPI(4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole)staining; The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) protein was detected by Western blotting. Results Compared with radio alone,the cell survival rate was reduced either by combination with metformin or by metformin alone(P<0.05).The cell survival rate also depended on drug by various schedules and drug concentration(P<0.05).Metformin alone or combined with radiation could arrest cell cycle in G2/M phase(P<0.01),induce cell apoptosis.The levels of protein of VEGF was decreased by metformin, radiation alone or combination(P<0.05). Conclusion Metformin has a radiosensitization effect on Hela cell cultured in vitro, which may be related to arresting in G2/M phase, inducing cell apoptosis and down-regulating the level of VEGF protein.
Objective To observe the effects of salidroside on regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in high sugar high fat induced primary mouse hepatocytes,and to explore the molecular mechanism. Methods Primary hepatocytes were extracted from mice and cultured, then divided into normal control group, model control group (high sugar high fat induced),and salidroside group(high sugar high fat induced and salidroside treated).Model control group and salidroside group were cultured in a high sugar and fatty medium with the optimal concentration of salidroside for 24 h.The glucose consumption,glycogen, and triglyceride concentration were detected, and key proteins of glucose and lipid metabolism were detected by RT-PCR in all three groups. Results Compared with model control group, the glucose consumption and glycogen concentration were both increased (P<0.05) in salidroside group (P<0.05), triglyceride concentration were decreased(P<0.05), the mRNA level of gluconeogenesis key protein (G6Pase and PEPCK) and lipid synthesis key protein (SREBP-1c, FAS-1, DGAT-2) mRNA expression level were increased (P<0.05),and the level of lipid oxidation key protein (CPT-1α) was decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion Salidroside can reduce insulin resistance and correct glucose and lipid metabolic disorder in high sugar high fat induced primary mouse hepatocytes.
Objective To investigate the preventive effect of curcumin on rats with myocardial apoptosis caused by type 1 diabetes. After intragastric administration of curcumin,the expression of genes related to apoptosis and the number of apoptotic myocardium cells were detected. Methods Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (15 rats per group): diabetes group, normal control group,curcumin low dose and high dose group. Animal model with type 1 diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in each group except the normal one. After two weeks of STZ injection,the rats with diabetes were used for this study. The curcumin treatment groups were treated with curcumin via intragastric administration for 16 weeks (twice a week). Normal control group and diabetes group were administrated with equivalent volume of saline. After 16 weeks, the experimental animals were sacrificed and their hearts were arrested after 0.9% sodium chloride solution perfusion. The number of myocardial cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining and the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax relate to the cell apoptosis were examined by western blot analysis. Results The result of TUNEL staining was confirmed that the apoptosis index in the rats of diabetes group was significantly higher than the normal control group (P<0.05). However, there was a significantly decline of apoptosis index in the diabetes rats after the treatment of curcumin (P<0.05) and the result showed a significant dose dependence of curcumin (P<0.05). The results of Western blot analysis confirmed that there was a significant lower expression of Bcl-2 and a higher expression and a higher expression of Bax in the hearts of diabetes rats compared with normal control rats (P<0.01). After the treatment of curcumin, the expression of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 was significantly increased and the expression of pro-apoptosis protein Bax was obviously decreased in the myocardial cells of rats in curcumin treated group compared with the diabetes group (P<0.01). The result was also in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusion The treatment of curcumin can significantly increase the expression of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 and decrease the expression of pro-apoptosis protein Bax,which induced the decrease of myocardial apoptosis in the heart of diabetes rats and could have the effects on the decline of myocardial apoptosis caused by diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by erosive and symmetric synovitis.Chronic inflammation of RA increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease.Atherosclerosis caused by inflammation in blood vessels is the main complication of RA patients.Many inflammatory immune cells, inflammatory factors, and adipokines were involved in chronic inflammation in vascular.In patients with RA, high levels of inflammatory factors, such as C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, accelerated atherosclerosis and myocardial fibrosis.Some adipokines, including adiponectin,leptin and resistin, are also important factors causing cardiovascular diseases in patients with RA.In this paper, they review the research advances of inflammatory factors and adipokines involved in RA associated with cardiovascular disease.
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) was known as polyphenolic compounds with a wide range of biological activities.It was extracted from Eucommiaulmoides Oliv plant.It has attracted considerable attention because of its good anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.This review aims to summarize neuroprotective activities of chlorogenic acid on Alzheimer's disease via improving learning and memory ability,inhibiting β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity,relieving mitochondrial injury and anti-apoptotic pathways.
Objective To prepare berberine chitosan sustained-release tablets and to study the in vitro release characteristics. Methods The chitosan sustained-release tablets were prepared by chitosan as the skeleton material,and the drug release rate of berberine hydrochloride at different time was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The in vitro cumulative release of berberine chitosan sustained-release tablets was increased with time.Furthermore,it can sustain for 24 h and the accumulative release was above 95%, the dissolution time of 63.2% of the drug was 12.63 h.Artificial gastric juice had the best performance on the dissolution of berberine,while rotations only influenced the dissolution at the beginning of drug release. Conclusion This method is convenient, accurate and reproducible.Berberine chitosan sustained-release tablets have further development and application value.
Objective To establish a specific HPLC method for simultaneous determination of three components (baicalin, linarin and rhein) in Cuochuang Xiaoyan lotion. Methods The three components in Cuochuang Xiaoyan lotion were assayed by HPLC gradient elution method.The assay was performed with Waters XTerra MS C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm) column, with acetonitrile (A) and 0.2% phosphoric acid solution (B) as mobile phase in gradient elution.The flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1.The detection wave length was 277 nm and column temperature was 30 ℃. Results Three components were completely separated from the adjacent peaks and a good linear relationship between each sample concentration and integral area was obtained.The linear equations were as follows: YBaicalin =9.208X-0.099 4(R2=0.999 9, 83.97-839.70 μg·mL-1);YLinarin =3.062 8X-0.003 8(R2=0.999 9,34.75-347.49 μg·mL-1);YRhein =1.022 5X-0.028 6(R2=0.999 8, 63.20-632.00 μg·mL-1). Conclusion The HPLC method is simple, accurate and reproducible, which is effective in controlling the quality of Cuochuang Xiaoyan lotion.
Objective To establish a method for quality evaluation of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma derived from Nardostachys jatamansi DC by determining the contents of nardosinone and establishing fingerprints. Methods HPLC fingerprint and content determination methods were established to evaluate ten batches of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma from Nardostachys jatamansi DC.For the determination of nardosinone, the samples were separated by Phenomenex-C18 (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water at the flow rate of 0.8 mL·min-1,the detection wavelength was set at 250 nm,and column temperature was 25 ℃.The gradient mobile phase system was used for the fingerprints. Results HPLC fingerprint of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma was established with good chromatography separation and repeatability, which could be used for quality control of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma.After similarity analysis, the results showed that there was no significantly difference between the HPLC fingerprints of samples from different origins,but the content of four major peaks were different.The amount of nardosinone from ten batches of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma was determined by HPLC-DAD, which showed that the contents of nardosinone from Nardostachys jatamansi DC were obviously different with each other. Conclusion The method is sensitive,repeatable and accurate.It can be used as a method of quality control for Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma.
Objective To establish the HPLC fingerprints of petroleum ether parts from five traditional medicine (Alpinia officinarum Hance, Alpinia galangal(L.) Wild,Alpinia galanga Will.,Alpinia katsumadai Hayata,and Alpinia oxyphylla Miq), and to explore the similarities and differences of chemical composition,as well as the correlation between the genetic relationship and the chemical composition. Methods HPLC method was used to analysis the five traditional medicines. The data were evaluated by using the "similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprint of TCM" software. Results The similarity chemical composition from Alpinia officinarum Hance,Alpinia galangal(L.) Wild,Alpinia galanga Will.,Alpinia katsumadai Hayata,and Alpinia oxyphylla Miq in ethyl acetate were 0.741,0.855,0.610,0.510, 0.680,respectively. Conclusion Though there were differences of fingerprint peak of petroleum ether parts between five the traditional Chinese medicines, similarities were also observed among them.
Objective To investigate and optimize the penetration enhancers of Xiaochuan emplastrum. Methods Franz diffusion cell was employed with isolated mice abdominal skin as barrier.The accumulating osmotic quantity per unit area and penetrating absorption rate of Sinapine thiocyanate were determinated by HPLC method.The penetration enhancers were selected and the ratio was determined. Results Combination of azone and propylene glycol were better than other kinds of enhancers for penetration effect, the ratio of propylene glycol and azone was 2:1.Dosage of azone and propylene glycol was finally optimized to 5% of prescription dosage.Under these conditions, cumulative permeation quantity of Sinapine thiocyanate was 369.59 μg·(cm2)-1, penetration rate of Sinapine thiocyanate was 14.19 μg·(cm2)-1·h-1 and enhancing rate was 3.19. Conclusion The ratio of propylene glycol and azone was 2:1,dosage of azone and propylene glycol was 5% of prescription dosage, which has a significant penetration effect and can be used as the penetration enhancer of Xiaochuan emplastrum.
Objective To investigate the compatibility and room light’s influence on Kuhuang injection diluted by 5% glucose,10% glucose, and fructose for injection within 48 hours at room temperature. Methods Kuhuang injections(high or low dosage)were diluted by 3 solutions at room temperature and were divided into light-exposed group and light-screening group.Stability were then studied by changes of appearance, pH value, particulates, contents of matrine and sophocarpine in the solutions. Results The Kuhuang injection solution remained clear within 48 hours, showing no obvious turbidity, sedimentation or change of appearance(deep yellow clear solution).The pH of the low concentration group with 10% glucose injection exposed to room light in creased significantly at 6 h,which was less stable than the light-screening group.The particulate content was acceptable according to regulation.The Kuhuang injection compatibility solution with fructose injection changed into weak acidic pH, and the particulate content did not meet regulation criteria in the high concentration group.The contents of matrine did not change, while the contents of sophocarpine decreased in each group.Sophocarpine seemed more stable in the light-screening group than in the light-exposed group. Conclusion The fructose injection was not suitable as the solvent for Kuhuang injection.The solutions are more stable if protected from light, and should be used as early as possible to reduce the degradation of some effective components.
Objective To provide reference for clinical pharmacist participating in the therapy for acute coronary syndrome. Methods Clinical pharmacist participated in the therapy for a case of acute coronary syndrome,helped physicians analyzing the possible reasons of anti-platelet drugs resistance, chose proper anti-platelet drug based on genetic testing, and adjusted the administration of statins. Results The platelet aggregation rate was reduced from 70.5% to 20.0%,and the liver injury was controlled after individualized medication. Conclusion The safety and efficacy of patients were improved through clinical pharmacist's actively participating in clinical practice .