Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a biological phenomenon, refers to the loss of epithelial characteristics and gain of mesenchymal phenotype.EMT actively participates in several physiological and pathological processes, especially in tumor metastasis and organ fibrosis.The EMT signaling pathways provide many potential drug targets for drug discovery.Recent studies showed that a large number of pure compounds, extracts, and formations from traditoinal Chinese medicine (TCM) are able to inhibit the EMT process.In this review, we briefly introduce the EMT phenomenon and then discuss the inhibitory effects and the underlying mechanisms of EMT inhibitors isolated from TCM using references obtained from literature database such as Web of Science and PubMed.This review will provide more information for the study of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the field of EMT.
Flavonoids are a class of ingredients with good antiviral activities, and widely found in varieties of traditional Chinese medicine and natural medicine.We made a summary for the antiviral activity of flavonoids in traditional Chinese medicine and natural medicine in the recent years, in the expectation of providing scientific basis for the development and utilization of flavonoid antiviral drugs, as well as their medicinal plant resources.
Objective To investigate the effect of down-regulation of CDH17 gene on apoptosis and proliferation of cisplatin-resistant human gastric cancer BGC823 cells. Methods The cisplatin-resistant human gastric cancer cell line BGC823 was transfected with siCDH17 lentivirus.Cell viability was measured by MTT assay.Hoechst33258 staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining were used to observe the apoptosis of cells.Western blotting was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Results MTT assay showed that CDH17 significantly reduced the survival rate of human gastric cancer BGC823 cells (P<0.05) and enhanced the sensitivity of human gastric cancer BGC823 cells to cisplatin.Hoechst33258 staining and Annexin V/PI double staining showed that down-regulation of CDH17 could promote the apoptosis of cisplatin-resistant BGC823 cells.Western blotting showed that down-regulation of CDH17 could increase the expressions of Bax,Cyt-c and CyclinD1 and decrease the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL,indicating that CDH17 might be involved in the regulation of cisplatin-resistance in human gastric cancer BGC823 cells through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Conclusion Down-regulation of CDH17 can promote the apoptosis of cisplatin-resistant BGC823 cells by regulating the mitochondrial pathway and regulate the expression of cyclin-dependent protein to inhibit the proliferation of drug-resistant cells.Finally,down-regulation of CDH17 can enhance the sensitivity of human gastric cancer BGC823 cells to cisplatin.
Objective To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of two kind crude separation portions from ginnala fruit. Methods ICR mice were fed with high-fat diet.They were injected with STZ (120 mg·kg-1) at an empty stomach.The mice, whose blood glucose level were above 11.1 mmol·L-1, were randomly divided into model control group, acarbose group (25 mg·kg-1), high-dose of extracts from ginnala fruit with ethyl acetate group (300 mg·kg-1), low-dose of extracts from ginnala fruit with ethyl acetate group (100 mg·kg-1), high-dose of water extraction and alcohol precipitation from ginnala fruit group (300 mg·kg-1), low-dose of water extraction and alcohol precipitation from ginnala fruit group (100 mg·kg-1), 10 mice in each group.The mice were intragastrically administered for 3 weeks.At the end of the experiment, oral glucose tolerance test was performed.Blood glucose, serum lipids and serum insulin were measured, and the tissues of the organs were observed by HE staining. Results The two separate parts extracted from ginnala fruit decreased the blood glucose levels of diabetic mice, significantly decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C, HbA1c, MDA and BUN levels, and significantly increased insulin, HDL-C, SOD and GSH levels in a dose-dependent manner.HE staining showed that the two kinds of rough separation sites of ginnala fruit groups had a good protective effect on liver and kidney.The effect of extracts from ginnala fruit with ethyl acetate was the best. Conclusion Ginnala fruit has significant hypoglycemic effect.
Objective To discuss the effect of Kangfuxin liquid combined with standard chemotherapy on cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with hemoptysis. Methods The single blind prospective case-control trial was used.Totally 182 cases of new smear positive cavernous pulmonary TB with hemoptysis in the people's hospital of Fenghua district Ningbo city, Zhejiang province, from Jan.2013 to Jun.2016 were divided into two groups by random number table, with 93 cases in treatment group and 89 cases in control group.Patients in control group were treated with standard chemotherapy of 2HRZE/4HR and placebo, while the patients in treatment group were given 2HRZE/4HR and Kangfuxin liquid.Clinical efficacy was observed in the two groups.The sputum negative conversion rate, foci absorption, void closure, hemoptysis symptoms remission and the occurrence of adverse drug reactions were compared. Results The remission rate of hemoptysis symptoms in treatment group was 100.00%, higher than that of the control group 92.13% (P<0.01) after two months of treatment.After two, five, six months of treatment, the sputum negative conversion rate in treatment group was 88.17% , 95.70% and 100.00% , higher than that of the control group in the same period, respectively as 76.40% , 87.64% and 95.51% (P<0.05) .After two and six months of treatment, the total effective rate of the foci absorption of the treatment group was 90.32% and 98.92%, higher than that of the control group in the same period , respectively as 78.65%, 92.26% (P<0.05). The cavity closure rate of the treatment group was 65.59% and 95.70% , higher than that of the control group in the same period, respectively as 50.56% , 87.64% (P<0.05).The total occurrence rate of adverse drug reactions in the two groups was almost the same, the treatment group was 13.98% and the control group was 15.73% , without significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusion The use of Kangfuxin liquid combined with standard chemotherapy to treat the cavernous pulmonary TB with hemoptysis has better clinical significance.Kangfuxin liquid can effectively improve the rate of foci absorption, cavity closure and sputum negative conversion rate.Kangfuxin liquid in treating TB is effective and safe and to be worthy of promotion and further research.
Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of Baihuadan Xiaogu decoction (BHD) in liver fibrosis. Methods Macaca fascicularis were divided into four groups: the normal control group, the model control group, the BHD-L group and BHD-H group.Hepatic fibrosis models establish by CCl4 (0.5 mL·kg-1) twice a week for 6 month, at the same time, high fat diet was feed.After six months, BHD-L and BHD-H (1.0,4.0 g·kg-1) were administered orally to groups respectively, whereas the normal control and model control groups were orally administered with pure water.Two months later, the blood sample was collected for the examination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (AST), and total bilirubin (T-BiL).The contents of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), matrix metalloprotein (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in serum were analyzed by ELISA assay.The expression of TGF-β1 in liver biopsy specimens was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results Compared with model control group, both BHD groups can reduce the levels of Macaca fascicularis serum ALT, AST, T-BiL.It can reduce the levels of TGF-β1, α-SMA and related matrix metalloprotein, regulatory effects on the expression of TGF-β1. Conclusion BHD can prevent liver fibrosis in Macaca fascicularis by reducing the level of TGF-β1, α-SMA and regulate the liver extracellular matrix metabolism.
Objective To study the effects of Fagopyrum tatarium Gaertn extractive on metabolism of alcohol and its underlying mechanisms. Methods Male Kunming mice were intragastrically administrated with three different doses (low,median or high) of Fagopyrum tatarium Gaertn extractive or vehicle control,then their liver tissue was collected after 2 h.The gene expression level of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH),acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH),peroxidase and cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) in the liver were detected by real-time qPCR,and the enzyme activity was also detected using their respective activity kits. Results Fagopyrum tatarium Gaertn extractive elevated the gene expression level of ALDH but not ADH,peroxidase or CYP450.The activity of ADH was increased after median or high dose treatment,the activity of ALDH was enhanced after low or median dose treatment,while the activity of peroxidase was elevated only by high dose treatment.However,Fagopyrum tatarium Gaertn extractive did not influence the activity of CYP. Conclusion Fagopyrum tatarium Gaertn extractive promotes the metabolism and excretion of alcohol,thus will exerts protective effects on organelles and enzymes associated with cell physiological functions.
Objective To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of mangiferin and its derivatives on diabetic mice and its possible mechanism, and to preliminarily investigate the structure-function relationship of mangiferin derivatives and hypoglycemic effect. Methods Diabetes model was established with intraperitoneal injection of 1% STZ buffer.Successful model mice were divided into model control group, acarbose group, mangiferin group, as well as derivatives group, 10 mice in each group.Blood glucose was determined on day 0, 7 and 11 after intragastric administration.The mice were sacrificed.Pancreas and kidney tissues were harvested for HE staining. Results As compared to the acarbose, mangiferin had good and obvious effect of reducing the blood glucose level of diabetes mice, and the blood glucose value of other derivative group also decreased, but the decrement was slightly less than that of mangiferin group.The glomerular clearance of the experimental group was significantly less than model control group, and the survival amount of islet cells was greater than that of the model conrol group. Conclusion Mangiferin can reduce the blood glucose level of diabetic mice, and the hypoglycemic effect of mangiferin derivatives enhances with the extension of the carbon chain.At the same time, mangiferin and their derivatives protect the kidneys of diabetic mice and inhibit islet cell apoptosis.
Objective To explore the molecular mechanism of the interaction between monocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells in the process of renal interstitial fibrosis and the effects of astragaloside IV on the interaction of the two cells. Methods By using in vitro co-culture system,monocyte cells (U973) and human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) were cultured and treated with astragaloside IV.The mRNA expression of Arg,marker gene of M1 monocytes iNOs and M2 monocytes were tested by real-time PCR.The cell surface marker of U973 TLR-4 was detected by FACS,and the change of TBK/IRF3 signaling expression was explored through mRNA and protein level. Results Astragaloside IV treatment inhibited the increase of iNOs and the decrease of Arg-1 induced by M1 transformation in HK-2 cells stimulated monocytes.Further,the surface marker TLR-4 was also decreased and the TBK/IRF3 signaling pathway was blocked by astragaloside IV . Conclusion Astragaloside IV inhibits renal interstitial fibrosis by blocking the TBK/IRF3 signaling pathway,inhibiting M1 differentiations of U973 cell and the expression of TLR4,and then relieves the production of inflammatory factors.
Objective To compare the relative bioavailability of lappaconitine phospholipids complex and itssolid dispersion. Methods Solvent evaporation method was employed to preparelappaconitine phospholipids complex and its solid dispersion,and their existential state was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD).After each of groups of SD rats were administered intragastrically with lappaconitine,phospholipid complex,and its solid dispersion,respectively (equivalent to 5 mg·kg-1 of lappaconitine).The blood samples were collected at different time intervals.The concentration of lappaconitine in blood was analyzed by HPLC method using tetrahydropalmatine as internal standard,and then the main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Results The AUC0~t of the phospholipids complex and its solid dispersions were significantly increased as compared with that of lappaconitine.The AUC0~t of phospholipid complex and its solid dispersion were increased by 1.41 and 2.04 times as compared to lappaconitine suspension,respectively. Conclusion The phospholipids complex and its solid dispersion could enhance the oral bioavailability of lappaconitine in SD rates notably.However,the bioavailability of lappaconitine phospholipids complexsolid dispersion is greater than that of phospholipids complex.
Objective To study the effects of different target-controlled concentrations of propofol on echocardiographic indexes of ventricular repolarization heterogeneity in the elderly. Methods Forty-five patients,aged 60-80 years,weighing 43-85 kg,scheduled for elective urinary tract surgery,were randomly divided into three groups (n=15 each) by using a random number table: propofol group 1 (P1),propofol group 2 (P2),propofol group 3 (P3).Target-controlled plasma concentration of propofol was 2,3,4 μg·mL-1 in group P1,P2 and P3,respectively.Before anesthesia,12 lead synchronous electrocardiogram (ECG) was collected,and the time point was t1.Five min after the plasma concentration of propofol was reached,ECG was collected again with the same electrode,and the time point was t2.All ECG was collected; we retrieved and printed the ECG from the database.QT interval,the corrected QT interval,the Tp-e interval and RR interval were measured. Results QTc in P1 group was 426.6±30.9,413.2±28.2,respectively at t1 and t2,Tp-e at the corresponding time point was 78.4±6.0,72.1±5.9,respectively; QTc in P2 group was 426.9±24.0,407.9±23.5,respectively at t1 and t2,Tp-e at the corresponding time point was 78.9±4.9,73.4±6.0,respectively; QTc in P3 group was 420.1±29.4,413.6±27.0,respectively at t1 and t2,Tp-e at the corresponding time point was 75.2±5.0,70.0±5.4,respectively.Compared with t1,QTc,Tp-e shortened in P1、P2 and P3 group at t2 (P<0.05).There were no significant differences in QTc and Tp-e between P1,P2 and P3 groups at t1,t2. Conclusion Clinical relevant doses of propofol help improve echocardiographic indexes of ventricular repolarization inhomogeneity for the elderly,and it can be a safe choice for the elderly anesthesia induction.
Objective To investigate the efficacy of tacrolimus in treating rheumatic immune disease patients with abnormal blood system,and relationship between tacrolimus concentration and laboratory examination indexes. Methods Basic information of 57 rheumatic immune disease patients with abnormal blood system treated with tacrolimus was collected.Laboratory examination indexes and blood concentration of tacrolimus were analyzed by using STATA. Results The levels of ESR,WBC,HB,PLT and HCT were statistically increased after tacrolimus medication.Additionally,the concentration of tacrolimus was positively related to the levels of TRIG and HCT. Conclusion Tacrolimus can effectively improve the levels of ESR,WBC,HB,PLT and HCT in patients with rheumatic immune disease accompanied with abnormal blood system.While tacrolimus concentration was above 3.1 ng·mL-1,the therapeutic effect was better,without serious adverse reactions.
Objective To explore postoperative analgesia effect of flurbiprofen combined with sufentanil in patients after percutaneous nephrolithotripsy with holmium laser. Methods Data were reviewed retrospectively from the first affiliated hospital of Xi'an jiao tong university between June 2015 and June 2016, in which patients were divided into two groups: treatment group (flurbiprofen combined with sufentanil) and control group (sufentanil) (n=47 in each group).Levels of CRP and IL-6 were detected before and after the treatment.Analgesic scores were compared between the two groups.Adverse reactions of the two groups during the treatment were recorded to evaluate postoperative analgesia effect of flurbiprofen in patients after percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy. Results Analgesic scores of the two groups 0, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h after the surgery were recorded.The scores at 0 and 48 h had no significant difference (P>0.05).Analgestic scores of the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group at 4, 12 and 24 h (t=3.411, 5.606, 3.767, P<0.05).After taking analgesic measures, the levels of inflammatory factors of the two groups were all decreased.And the changes of the treatment group was more significant (P<0.05).Adverse reactions occurred in both groups.The incidence of adverse reactions in the treatment group (6.38%) was lower than that of the control group (8.51%) (P>0.05).The analgesic satisfaction rate of the treatment group was 80.85%, significantly higher than that of the other group (57.45%) (χ2=6.034,P=0.014). Conclusion As compared with sufentanil alone, flurbiprofen combined with sufentanil was more effective in postoperative analgesia in patients after percutaneous nephrolithotripsy with holmium laser.The combination can decrease the levels of inflammatory factors with better safety profile and value of clinical application.
Objective To investigate extractive technology of atractylodin from Atracty lodeslancea by ultrasonic and microwave. Methods Using the extractive efficiency of atractylodin as index,the ultrasonic and microwave extractive technology was optimized by single factor test and orthogonal test,and compared with single ultrasonic method and single microwave method. Results The optimum parameters of extractive technology were a ratio of solid/liquid 1:30 (g·mL-1) with the extraction solvent of 75% ethanol,the microwave power of 200 W,and the ultrasonic power of 600 W for 20 min at the temperature of 50 ℃.The combined use of ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction provided higher extraction efficiency than each of them alone. Conclusion The ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction has the advantages of high efficiency,short time,low energy consumption and environmental protection,which provides reference for the industrial production and development of new drug.
Objective To optimize the extracting process of total flavonoids from Scutellaria barbata D.Don. Methods The independent variables were alcohol concentration, extracting time and liquid-to-solid ratio.The dependent variable was extraction content of total flavonoids.Linear or nonlinear models were used to estimate the relationship between independent and dependent variables.Central composite design and response surface methodology (CCD-RSM) was used to optimize the process of extraction. Results Analysis indicated that the optimum conditions were 69.15% ethanol,solid liquid ratio 1:30.32, extracting time120 min and 2 times for extraction.Extractive rate was 3.0%. Conclusion The extracting technology is simple, convenient and highly predictive.
Objective To investigate the clinical distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its drug resistance to commonly used antibiotics and provide reference for clinical reasonable selection of antibiotics. Methods Retrospective analysis of the distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in Tongji hospital affiliated to Tongji medical college Huazhong university of science and technology during 2011 to 2016 was carried out.Drug susceptibility test was conducted by K-B method except for penicillin and cefatriaxone by E-test method. Results A total of 1 046 strains of Streptococcus pneumonia were isolated from specimens in hospital during 2011 to 2016,among them 300 strains were from adults patients and the other 746 strains were from children patients.Sputum was the most common specimen type and its ratio was 62.3% in adults group,90.5% in children group.Totally,59.6% of the strains were from department of pediatrics.The antibiotics sensitivity results showed that the resistance rate of the isolates to erythromycin and clindamycin was higher in adults and children,more than 85.0%.The susceptible rates of penicillin (non-meningitis break point),moxifloxacin,levofloxacin and vancomycin were higher than 80.0%. Conclusion In the hospital the isolates of Streptococcus pneumonia is mainly from respiratory specimens and the resistance rate to erythromycin and clindamycin was higher.Erythromycin and clindamycin are not suitable for the treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection.Clinicians should select antibiotics according to the results of drug sensitivity.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and security of famciclovir and acyclovir in the treatment of herpes zoster. Methods Literature analysis based on evidence-based medicine was performed.Computer retrieval from Cochrane library, Pubmed, EMbase, China biomedical literature database, Chinese Journal Full-text Database, VIP Chinese sci-tech periodicals and Wanfang Digital Periodicals was conducted to search for randomly controlled trials about the effects of famciclovir and acyclovir on herpes zoster from inception to December 2015. The quality of included studies was evaluated.Data were extracted into a specially designed extraction form.The Cochrane collaboration’s RevMan5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. Results The meta-analysis of 30 included RCTs showed that famciclovir was significantly effective in treating herpes zoster compared with acyclovir.The combined effect of cure rate OR=2.11,95%CI(1.73,2.57),P<0.000 01,the combined effect of total effective rate OR=2.58,95%CI(1.92,3.48),P<0.000 01,the combined effect of security OR=1.10,95%CI(0.80,1.510,P=0.56.There was no significant difference in the safety of the two drugs. Conclusion It has been demonstrated that famciclovir is is more effective in the treatment of herpes zoster compared with acyclovir.The security is equivalent.High-quality large-scale multiple-centered sample RCT is required.
Objective To investigate the satisfaction regarding to drug safety among residents in Ningbo and to analyze the influencing factors, in order to provide basis for decision making. Methods With the method of recycling of the questionnaires on the spot, data of satisfaction of drug safety environment in the general public collected, and the related influencing factors was analyzed. Results A total of 600 questionnaires were set out, 579 were taken back effectively, and the effective recovery rate was 96.5%.As a result, 7.6% respondents were very satisfied, 31.1% satisfied, 45.4% generally satisfied, and 14.3% less satisfied.The factors affecting satisfaction are healthy status, the acceptance of prices, the way to get drugs, drug safety factors, and the confidence in pharmaceutical industry in the future. Conclusion Due to the lower satisfaction of drug safety environment, this study suggests that the government should establish a drug safety education system, create a good market environment, enhance the propagandization of drug safety laws and regulations, and unblock the communication channels of drug safety information.