Objective To explore the candidate targets and potential mechanism of Piper longum L. on treatment of hyperlipidemia,a traditional Mongolian medicine,based on network pharmacology methods. Methods The active ingredients of Piper longum L.were screened by pharmacological analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform database(TCMSP).The predicted targets of selected compounds were obtained by PharmMapper Server,and protein information of them was obtained by Uniprot.Hyperlipidemia-related targets were obtained by text mining in OMIM database,Genecards and DiGSeE.The GO annotations and KEGG Pathway enrichment of potential targets against hyperlipidemia combining predicted targets and disease targets of hyperlipidemia using Tbtools were analyzed by WebGestalt database and Metascape.The network of interactions between drug, target and pathways was constructed by Cytoscape. Results Fifteen active components of Piper longum L.and 31 target proteins related to hyperlipidemia were collected.GO enrichment analysis and pathway annotation showed that there were 23 pathways related to hyperlipidemia indirectly or directly by the pathways of lipid metabolism and platelet aggregation. Conclusion Fifteen effective components in Piper longum L.have played a role in hypolipidemic effects by regulating 31 targets such as ACHE, PRSS1 and ABCB1, interfering with 22 pathways such as AMPK-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathway; this article has provided a theoretical basis for Piper longum L.in further study.
Objective To investigate whether acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in rat trigeminal ganglion ( TG ) neurons was involved in the anti-nociceptive effects of paeoniflorin (Pae). Methods Rat orofacial formalin pain model was used to evaluate the anti-noceciptive effect of Pae.Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record proton-gated currents mediated by ASICs (Iasic ) in TG neurons. Results ① The majority of examined neurons(82.4%) were sensitive to acidic extracellular medium.The acidic extracellular medium induced inward current in a pH-dependent manner, and Iasic were blocked by amiloride, an antagonist of the ASICs.② When Pae (10-1000 μmol·L-1)was pre-applied extracellularly, it reduced Iasic significantly in TG neurons, this inhibitory effect was reversible and dose-dependent, the inhibition of Iasic by Pae could be partially reversed by pre-application of DPCPX ( antagonist of adenosine A1 receptor ).③ The pH-dependent activation curve was shifted downwards by Pae, with a decrease of (54.89±4.94)% in the maximum amplitude of Iasic but with no significant change in the pH50 value.④ Pae ( 50 mg·kg-1,ip) or amiloride ( 30 μg, sc) significantly attenuated the second phase of the face-rubbing response induced by formalin, the antinociceptive effects of Pae were partially reversed by DPCPX (10 μg, sc). Conclusion These results suggest that the analgesics effect of Pae may be due to the inhibition of ASICs via adenosine A1 receptor in rat primary sensory neurons.
Objective To determination of four components of Danshen extracts in rat plasma by UPLC, and study the pharmacokinetics. Methods Sprague-Dawley( SD) rats were intragastric administrated with Danshen extracts.The concentration of salvianolic acid B, notoginsenoside R1,ginsenoside Rg1 and tanshinone IIA in plasma were measured by UPLC.The main pharmacokinetics parameters of plasma were calculated by DAS software. Results The concentration of four compositions in plasma and peak area exhibited a good linearity (r>0.99).The matrix effect were between 94.8% and 110.3%, recoveries were between 81.9% and 103.1%.Intra-day and inter-day precisions of the investigated components exhibited RSD≤8.23%,and the accuracy (RE) ranged from -7.09% to 3.49% at all quality control levels.The results stability meet the requirements for biopharmaceutical analysis.For salvianolic acid B, the pharmacokinetics parameters tmax, Cmax, AUC(0-t), MRT(0-t) last in the plasma were(1.5±0) h,(1784.0±322.3) μg·L-1,( 2848.7±1021.3) μg·h·L-1 and (2.3±0.5) h, respectively.For Rg1, the tmax, Cmax, AUC(0-t), MRT(0-t) last in the plasma were (0.5±0.1) h, (1811.0±452.6) μg·L-1, (1957.6±981.5) μg·h·L-1and(2.5±0.2) h, respectively.For notoginsenoside R1, the pharmacokinetics parameters tmax, Cmax, AUC(0-t), MRT(0-t)last in the plasma were (0.3±0) h, (330.0±112.7) μg·L-1, (886.5±311.8) μg·h·L-1 and (3.9±0.4) h,respectively.For tanshinone IIA, the tmax,Cmax, AUC(0-t), MRT(0-t)last in the plasma were(1.5±0) h, (3300.0±1223.6) μg·L-1,(5459.9±2011.6) μg·h·L-1 and (3.5±0.1) h, respectively. Conclusion The established UPLC method can be used for the simultaneous determination of pharmacokinetics of salvianolic acid B, notoginsenoside R1,ginsenoside Rg1 and tanshinone IIA in rat plasma.Moreover, this method is suitable for the in vivo detection of compound Danshen tablets and compound Danshen drop pills.
Objective To study the effects of apatinib mesylate, berberine and combination two drugs on the proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of Hep-G2 cells, and to explore the mechanism. Methods CCK-8 method was used to detect the inhibitory effect of the treatments;Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. Results Apatinib mesylate and berberine had a certain inhibitory effect on the proliferation of Hep-G2 cells, and both showed a concentration and time dependence manner;their IC25 values were 0.5 μmol·L-1 and 30 μmol·L-1, respectively.When the two drugs were combined, the proliferation inhibition rate of Hep-G2 was also time-dependent after apatinib mesylate treatment, the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase increased, and the proportion of cells in S phase and G2/M phase decreased.After berberine treatment, the proportion of cells in G2/M phase increased, and the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase and S phase decreased when combined two drugs to treat Hep-G2 cells, the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase increased significantly, while the proportion of cells in S phase and G2/M phase decreased (P<0.01);Both of apatinib mesylate and berberine could induce apoptosis in Hep-G2 cells in a time-dependent manner;And the rate of apoptosis was further enhanced by the combination use of two drugs (P<0.05).Both apatinib mesylate and berberine inhibited the proliferation of Hep-G2 cells in a time-concentration dependent manner, and the proliferation inhibition was further strengthened when the two drugs were combined, which also showed a time-dependent effect. Conclusion Apatinib mesylate and berberine can both cause cell cycle arrest and promote apoptosis in a time-dependent manner, and the effect is more obvious when the two drugs are combined.
With the increasing of worldwide application of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) , the reports of adverse reactions and events of TCM have been increasing, which cause a widespread concern about the safety of TCM.In this article, the relationship of the toxicity and adverse reactions of TCM and potential mechanism, the manifestation of toxicological effects of TCM in various systems of the body, and the reports of commonly used adverse reactions of TCM in recent years were summarized based on literature research.Moreover, this review aimed to objectively understand the adverse reactions of TCM and provide reference for clinical safety medication.
Medicines of animal origin are important components of traditional Chinese medicine.In ancient times,traditional Chinese medicine practitioners have recognized that the noxious ingredient in toxic animals may also be an active ingredient.And adopted methods including processing,compatibility and preparation were used to reduce the toxicity and increase efficiency.Modern studies have found that various animal toxins are the material bases that lead to the toxicity.Animal toxins are various bioactive substances such as proteins and peptides with structurally and functionally diverse.Different animal toxins have distinct biological effects.In this reviewer, we systematically reviewed the historical records and modern toxicity-related studies of eight toxic animals which are still commonly used up to now in traditional Chinese medicine, including eupolyphaga steleophaga,hirudo,scorpio,bungarus parvus,mylabris,scolopendra,agkistrodon and bufonis venenum.We conducted comprehensive evaluation in aspects of toxic chemical components, molecular mechanisms, clinical anti-toxicity strategies and performance,in order to provide reference for the scientific understanding of traditional Chinese toxic animal medicine and its clinical rational application.
Caulis Sinomenii is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine which is dry cane of Sinomenium acuturn (Thunb.) Rehd et Wils. Or Sinamenium acutum (Thunb.) Rehd.et Wils.var.cinereum Rehd.et Wils.Caulis Sinomenii has many including antihypertensive, anti-arrhythmia,anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In this paper, we described toxicity caused by Caulis Sinomenii, analyzed material basis and molecular mechanism of its toxic reaction, introduced the main clinical manifestations and countermeasures of Caulis Sinomenii and evaluated the relationship between the toxic reaction and pharmacological activity.The review will provide a knowledge of its toxicity and a suggestion for more appropriate clinical use of Caulis Sinomenii.
Objective To evaluate the differences between the effects of oxycodone hydrochloride and morphine on respiratory function and sedation status in the conscious patients. Methods A total of we 120 patients were randomly assigned to receive oxycodone hydrochloride 0.075 mg·kg-1 (O1 group), 0.1 mg·kg-1 (O2 group),0.15 mg·kg-1 (O3 group) or morphine 0.15 mg·kg-1 (M group).Before anesthesia begins and after fastening the anesthesia masks with anesthesia head strap, and patients breathed steadily for 3 minutes.Injected the selected drug diluted in the 10 mL saline to the patients.Kept 30-minute-long records of minute volume(Ve), tidal volume(Vt), respiratory rate(RR), and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2)with the anesthesia machine. The oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) was recorded with the patient monitor.At the same time, the data of the NTI index and the incidences of the side effects were collected. Results The changes of Ve,RR,NTI in O1,O2,O3 group were bigger than those in M group(P<0.05).The ultimate time of Ve、RR、PetCO2 in O2,O3 group was as earlier than the one in in M group(P<0.05).However,there was no difference in the 30 minute recovery rate of Ve、RR in the four groups.The incidence of hidrosis was lower in O1,O2,O3 group than in M group(P<0.05).The incidence of diziness was lower in O1,O2 group than that in M group(P<0.05). Conclusion The respiratory function and sedation status of oxycodone hydrochloride is dose-dependent and severer than those of morphine.The level of the effects is highest about 3-5 minutes after oxycodone injected.The incidence of other side effects of oxycodone hydrochloride is lower than the ones of morphine.
Objective To investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine on mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS),and to observe oxygenation index,respiratory mechanics and inflammatory factors. Methods Fifty-one mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS were randomly divided into two groups:24 cases in mechanical ventilation group (group A) and 27 cases in dexmedetomidine group (group B).Group A was treated with conventional mechanical ventilation.In group B, the load of dexmedetomidine was 1 μg·kg-1,and was maintained at a level of 0.2-0.7 μg·kg-1·h-1 .To compare the oxygenation index, static lung compliance (Cst),respiratory plateau pressure (Pplat),serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α),interleukin -6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in two groups were measured before treatment, 24 h and 48 h after treatment, respectively. Results There was no significant difference in gender proportion, age, BMI index, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II(APACHE II) score and ARDS classification between the two groups (P>0.05) .The two groups of patients were improved after treatment.Twenty-four hours after the treatment,there was no significant difference in the oxygenation index,Cst,TNF-a,IL-6 and IL-8 between group A and group B.Pplat in the group B was lower than that in the group A (P<0.05).Forty-eight hours after the treatment,the oxygenation index,respiratory mechanics and inflammatory factors in group B were significantly improved than those in group A (P< 0.05). Conclusion When dexmedetomidine is used in mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS for sedation and analgesia, it can further improve oxygenation index, increase static lung compliance,reduce respiratory plateau pressure,and depress the release of inflammatory factors.
Objective To analyze the concerned risk factors of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) related to intubation general anesthesia,and to provide clinical basis for the prevention and cure of PONV. Methods A total of 1185 cases of intubation general anesthesia was retrospectively analyzed.The situations of PONV were recorded within 24 hours.By the statistical analysis of patients’ clinical data, intraoperative operation and anesthesia and post-operative treatment,the risk factors leading to PONV were filtered. Results Related to intubation general anesthesia and occurring in the recovery period,the total incidence of PONV is 10.7%.There are 127 PONV cases while the non-PONV ones account for 1058.Multifactor analysis implied that female [OR=4.355,95%CI(2.516,7.537)P<0.01], higher education background [OR=2.036,95%CI(1.309,3.167)P=0.002] and chemotherapy experience [OR=2.572,95%CI(1.634,4.049)P<0.01] are the independent risk factors leading to PONV.Intraoperative maintenance of using dexmedetomidine [OR=0.351,95%CI(0.206,0.597)P<0.01] and postoperative using dexmedetomidine [OR=0.366,95%CI(0.242,0.551)P<0.01] are the protective factors.The area under the ROC curve was 0.776 and the predicted accuracy rate of the model was 89.2%. Conclusion Comprehensive preventive measures should be taken for the high-risk patients suffering from PONV during the perioperative period.Dexmedetomidine is helpful for reducing PONV when it is used during and after the surgery.
Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of diltiazem combined with nifedipine in the treatment of hemodialysis patients with resistant hypertension. Methods A total of 65 hemodialysis patients with resistant hypertension have been treated with 3 kinds of hypertension drugs (one of them was nifedipine sustained release or controlled-release tablets),whose blood pressure was still beyond standard.The diltiazem tablets were added to the patients.The heart rate and blood pressure were monitored at 2 and 4 weeks after the treatment.Patients with effective treatment continued to use for 6 months, followed up of adverse reactions. Results Before diltiazem treatment,the blood pressure was (186.3±17.8)/(95.0±12.9) mmHg and heart rate was (81.3±13.3) beats per min(bpm).After two weeks of diltiazem treatment, the blood pressure was (159.1±14.6)/(82.2±11.4) mmHg, heart rate was (79.4±11.3) bpm,and the efficiency of therapy was 76.92%.After four weeks of diltiazem treatment, the blood pressure was (150.6±12.4)/(77.7±10.7) mmHg,and heart rate was (75.4±14.1) bpm.The total efficiency of depressurization was 92.31%, suggesting that 60 patients were treated effectively.One of the patients had metabolic acidosis and electrolyte disturbance which was not related to diltiazem and nifedipine; and 1 patients had bradycardia associated with combination use of other drugs. Conclusion Diltiazem combined with nifedipine can effectively reduce the blood pressure of patients with refractory hypertension in hemodialysis.And no significant side effect on heart rate is observed, should pay attention to the interaction and contraindication between diltiazem and other drugs.
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea is defined as a diarrhea associated with the use of antibiotics which can not explain by other reason.Due to the widespread use of antibiotics currently, the incidence of disease is gradually increasing.If not treated promptly, some patients may be at risk of causing toxic megacolon and even shock,which can lead to death.In this paper,the research progress of antibiotic-associated diarrhea is expounded from the aspects of clinical manifestation,pathogenesis, disease diagnosis,risk factors,treatment and preventive measures,aiming at providing reference for the prevention and treatment of the disease and the development of new drugs.
Objective To establish a method for the determination of three kinds of diester alkaloids in lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods The analysis was performed on WondaSil C18 (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) column.The mobile phase A was 60 mmol·L-1 ammonium acetate aqueous solution and mobile phase B was acetonitrile:tetrahydrofuran (9:1) with gradient elution at the flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1.The detection wavelength was 235 nm and column temperature was set at 35 ℃. Results The linear ranges of mesaconitine,hypaconitine and aconitine were 0.526-10.520 μg(r=0.999 7), 0.522-10.440 μg (r=0.999 5) and 0.108-2.160 μg (r=0.999 2), respectively.The average recovery rates were 103.90%(RSD=0.94%), 96.67%(RSD=1.27%), 102.62%(RSD=2.42%). Conclusion This method is simple, accurate and proper for simultaneous determination of three diester alkaloids in lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx.
Objective To develop a method for the determination of dissolution in ketotifen fumarate dispersible tablets. Methods The dissolution test was performed with paddles, which rotational speed was 50 r·min-1, using 500 mL of water as the dissolution medium.A quantity after exact 30 minutes after and filter.Determine the successive filtrate by HPLC. Results The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.2-5.0 μg· mL-1 for ketotifen fumarate(r=0.999 9).The average recovery of ketotifen fumarate was 99.7% with RSD 2.6% (n=9).The dissolution from each tablet was more than 80% of the labeled amount in 30 minutes. Conclusion The established method is accurate and simple.It could be used for the determination of dissolution in ketotifen fumarate dispersible tablets.
Objective To establish a supercritical fluid chromatographic method to separate citalopram enantiomers by ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC2). Methods Using UPC2, citalopram enantiomers were separated by ACQUITY UPC2 Trefoil chiral columns with supercritical carbon dioxide as mobile phase,and the detection wavelength was 240 nm.The retention time,resolution, symmetry factor and theoretical plate number of citalopram S-enantiomer were observed as outcome indicators, to investigate the effects of chiral column types,types and proportions of modifiers and additives, column temperature, backpressure and flow rate on the chiral separation. Results The selected chromatographic conditions were using CEL2 column(2.1 mm×50 mm,2.5 μm),the modifier was methanol-acetonitrile(9:1) and the proportion in the mobile phase was 9%,the additive was triethylamine and the proportion in the modifier was 0.1%,the column temperature was 37 ℃,the backpressure was11.72 MPa, and the flow rate was 0.6 mL·min-1.Under the optimized conditions,the resolution of R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer was 2.315,the symmetry factor was 1.198 and the theoretical plate number was 3184,so the separating performance was good. Conclusion Using supercritical fluid chromatography,citalopram enantiomers can be completely separated by UPC2,it is an environmental friendly,simple and efficient analytical method.
Objective To optimize the formulation of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride(ROX) gastric-floating sustained release tablets by central composite design-response surface methodology(CCD-RSM). Methods Gastric-floating sustained release tablets were prepared by direct powder compression method.In formulation designed with CCD-RSM,amounts of excipients were taken as independent variables,percentages of in vitro cumulative release at each time point and floating performance were regarded as indexes.Releasing mechanism of tablets was investigated. Results Optimized formulation was HPMC 55 mg,octadecanol 100 mg,NaHCO3 50 mg,lactose 118 mg,and micro silica gel 2 mg.It floats quickly and lasts for 8 hours.The drug release process conforms to the Ritger-Peppas model, n=0.668 1, indicating non-Fick diffusion.The drug was released in a diffusion and dissolution co-existence manner. Conclusion The ROX gastric floating sustained-release tablet prepared by CCD-RSM optimized formulation has good sustained-release and floating properties.
Objective To prepare drug-loaded microspheres for embolization using temperature sensitive nanogels that can be used for transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods Random copolymer PNA nanogels were prepared by emulsion polymerization and its particle morphology, drug-loaded capacity,temperature sensitivity, solution phase transition behavior were characterized.The formulation of PNA nanogels was optimized by orthogonal design test. Results Nanogels particles were relatively uniform sphere.The particle size was 50~150 nm.The feeding amount of AA had a significant effect on the doxorubicin loading and phase transition temperature of the drug-loaded temperature sensitive nanogels embolization microspheres.The drug loading rate was (19.01±0.82)%, and the phase transition temperature was (36.6±2) ℃ when the feeding amount of NIPAM, AA, MBA and SDS were 1.13, 0.32, 0.04 and 0.06 g, respectively. Conclusion The microspheres have high doxorubicin loading rate and suitable phase transition temperature, and might be used as a drug-loading and embolic material for TACE.
Objective To establish a HPLC method to measure the content of Pregabalin with post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection. Methods A Waters C18 column was adopted with mobile phase composed of water-methanol(85:15) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1 and column temperaturc at 35 ℃.The fluorescence detection wavelength was 334 nm(λex)and 455 nm(λem). Results The linear range was 8-80 μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 5).The average recovery was 99.82% with RSD of 0.80%(n=9). Conclusion The method is smiple,accurate,specific and sensitive for determination of content of Pregabalin by HPLC with post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection.
Objective To establish HPLC fingerprint chromatogram for the quality control of Ruyi Jinhuang Pulvis. Methods The separation was performed on a waters XTerra MS C18 column(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm).The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1,the eluent was monitored by a UV detector set at 254 nm.The column temperature was set at 30 ℃,and the injection volume was 10 μL. Results There were 21 common peaks for the sample,and nine of them were identified as atractylomadin,magnolol,curcumin,aloeemodin,emodin,rhein,chrysophanol,physcion , respectively. Conclusion The method showes good respeatability and informative chromatogram,which can provide credible quality control method for Ruyi Jinhuang San.
Objective To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of amisulpride in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Methods PubMed,Embase,The Cochrane Library,CNKI,VIP,WanFang Data and CBM databases were electronically searched to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for amisulpride in preventing PONV from inception to August 2018.Two reviewers independently screened literature,extracted data and assessed the risk bias of included studies,and then,meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.3 software. Results A total of 4 RCTs were included,involving 2548 patients.Meta-analysis showed amisulpride reduced the PONV incidence [RR=0.83,95%CI (0.78,0.89), P<0.000 01],the PO (postoperative) -24h-vomiting incidence [RR=0.78,95%CI (0.68, 0.90),P=0.000 9], PO-24h-significant nausea incidence [RR=0.81,95%CI (0.75,0.88),P<0.000 01] and PO-24h-antiemetic drug use rate (the proportion of people who need antiemetic therapy within 24 hours postoperative) [RR=0.81,95%CI (0.76, 0.88),P<0.000 01] when comparing with those of the control group.In term of safety, amisulpride reduced the PO-7d-adverse event incidence (the proportion of people who had at least one adverse event within 7 days postoperative) compared with the control group [RR=0.84,95%CI (0.77, 0.92),P=0.000 1], and the PO-7d-serious adverse event incidence [RR=0.91,95%CI (0.56,1.50),P=0.72] was not statistically different from the control group. Conclusion The current evidence shows that amisulpride has potential as a drug for preventing PONV with good efficacy and safety.Due to limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more high-quality studies are required to verify above conclusion.
Objective To understand the correlation between the resistance rate of Enterococcus and the use of antibacterial agents,and to provide reference for the control of hospital infection of Enterococcus. Methods The resistance rate of Enterococcus and the defined daily dose (DDDs) of 43 kinds of antibacterial agents in a first-class hospital at grade 3 from 2014 to 2017 were collected and analyzed retrospectively.Correlations between the drug resistance rate of enterococcus and DDDs of antibacterial agents at the same and different periods were carried out by using spearman correlation analysis. Results The total DDDs of antibacterial agents in the first half of 2017 decreased by 63% compared with the second half of 2016.The resistance rate of enterococcus faecium to teicoplanin was the highest (2.2%) in the first half of 2016,which was positively correlated with the DDDs of oxazolidinone (linezolid) of the same period and DDDs of aminoglycosides a year ago.The resistance rate of Enterococcus faecalis to penicillin G was lower than 6.1%,which was positively correlated with DDDs of oxazolidinone (linezolid) the last semi-annual.The resistance rate of Enterococcus faecalis to linezolid was less than 1.1%,which was positively correlated with the the last semi-annual DDDs of cephalosporin (P<0.05). Conclusion Standard and rational use of antibacterial agents and controlling their DDDs are helpful to reduce the drug resistance rate of Enterococcus.
Objective To analyze the use of antimicrobials treated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), to provide references for drug rational use and payment management of single disease. Methods The clinical data of 144 patients treated with ERCP during Jul.to Dec.2017 were retrospectively analyzed.The etiological examination,utilization of antibacterials,and drug consumption were statistically analyzed. Results The rate of clinical specimens was 93.75%.Totally, 169 pathogenic strains were detected,including 91 gram-negative strains (53.85%, 91/169),48 gram-positive strains (28.40%,48/169) and 30 fungal strains (17.75%, 30/169).The first three pathogenic bacteria were Escherichia coli,Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus viridans.The antibiotics were administrated in 182 case-times,and ceftizoxime,imipenem,ceftazidime were ranked in the top three.In general,the third generation cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitors were used the most frequently,accounting for 68.68% (125/182); and the antibiotics for special use was 25.82% (47/182),moreover, imipenem / leltine was the most used .The average course of treatment was 9.42 days.The drug cost was 3451.80 yuan on average for each time of treatment, accounting for 41.52% of the total cost of antibiotics. Conclusion The administration of antibiotics in patients treated by ERCP is reasonable.The research provides reference for developing single disease payment system.
Objective To understand the basic situation,blood glucose monitoring and medication of diabetic patients in different regions of Shaanxi province,and to provide reference and basis for the chronic diseases management of diabetic patients in Shaanxi Province. Methods A typical sampling method was used to extract four representative cities.During April and May 2018,the simple sampling method was used to select the diabetic patients from different hospitals in each city to conduct research. Results During the 569 patients with diabetes,the blood glucose level was stable within the normal range of 45.87%,the blood glucose monitoring frequency of different blood glucose monitoring frequency and regional diabetes patients,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).74.17% were completely medicated according to the doctor's advice.The difference in the number of patients with different education qualifications and courses were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The general situation of blood glucose monitoring and drug use of diabetic patients in Shaanxi province needs to be improved,and the disease management of elderly diabetic patients in various regions should be paid attention to.
Objective To construct the evaluation index system of drug supply chain management effect of drug supply-processing-distribution (SPD),to evaluate the effect of SPD supply chain management in hospital A,and to provide a reference for the evaluation of SPD supply chain management effect in hospital. Methods Through literature research,Delphi and AHP,the evaluation index system of drug SPD supply chain management effect was established.Taking hospital A as an example,this research investigated the relevant data before and after SPD supply chain management launched in hospital A (2016 and 2017).The effect of SPD supply chain management in hospital A was comprehensively evaluated by weighted TOPSIS method for each evaluation index. Results In this study,the evaluation index system of drug SPD supply chain management effect was established,including 4 first-class indexes and 16 second-class indexes.The comprehensive evaluation results of drug management indexes in 2018 in hospital A were better than those in 2016 and 2017.Drug SPD supply chain management mode can improve the efficiency of hospital drug management and reduce the cost of hospital drug operation and management. Conclusion The evaluation index system of drug SPD supply chain management effect constructed in this study can provide scientific basis for the effect evaluation method of hospital drug SPD supply chain management.
Objective To introduce the course education mode of clinical pharmacy undergraduate in Capital Medical University and to provide reference and reflection for the development of clinical pharmacy education and talent cultivation in China. Methods The education mode of clinical pharmacy in Capital Medical University were separately introduced from the aspects of curriculum setting, training mode, practice mode, training process and so on. Results The clinical pharmacy major of Capital Medical University paying attention to the cultivation of students' clinical thinking, practical ability and scientific research quality, and a set of more complete culture system was formed.The '5+2' undergraduate - master connecting clinical pharmacy training mode, and connecting with the standardized training of hospitalized pharmacists in Beijing was its characteristic,which could shorten the period of talent cultivation while ensuring the quality of talent cultivation. Conclusion It is urgent to form a set of mature and perfect talent cultivation system for clinical pharmacy specialty in China.The cultivation mode of clinical pharmacy major in Capital Medical University had its own characteristics, which could provide reference for the construction of clinical pharmacy discipline and the cultivation of clinical pharmacy professionals in China.