Objective To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride combined with oxycodone hydrochloride on the recovery quality and stress response of patients during general anesthesia recovery period after emergency abdominal surgery for abdominal blunt trauma. Methods A total of 60 patients undergoing emergency open surgery was selected and randomly divided by 30 cases each into treatment group and control group.After the induction of anesthesia, the patients in the treatment group were intravenously infused or pumped with dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (1 μg·kg-1) and oxycodone hydrochloride (0.1 mg·kg-1) within 15 minutes.The control group was infused with an equal volume of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded before induction of anesthesia (t0), extubation immediately (t1), 1 minute after extubation (t2), 10 minutes after extubation (t3), and 30 minutes after extubation (t4).The recovery time of spontaneous breathing, resuscitation time and extubation time were evaluated, and the visual analogue scale (VAS), restlessness score, sedation score (Ramsey) were recorded at the time of t1, t2, t3, and t4.Adverse drug reactions were observed and plasma cortisol (Cor), epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), blood glucose concentration (Glu) concentrations were determined at t0, t1, t3 and t4. Results Compared with the control group, the SBP, DBP and HR measured at t1, t2 and t3 time points in the treatment group were significantly lower (P<0.01).There was no significant differences in recovery time, resuscitation time and extubation time between the two groups (P>0.05).The VAS scores and RSS scores of the treatment group at t2, t3, and t4 were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.01).There was no significant difference in Ramsay scores between the two groups at all time points (P>0.05).The incidences of nausea, vomiting, arrhythmia and drowsiness were similar in both groups, and there were no respiratory depression and pruritus (P>0.05).At the t1, t3 and t4 time points, plasma Cor, E, NE, and Glu concentrations were significantly higher than those at t0 (P<0.01).In the treatment group, plasma concentrations of Cor,E,NE, and Glu at t1, t3, and t4 were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion The combined use of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride and oxycodone hydrochloride for advanced anesthesia could provide more stable hemodynamic environment for patients undergoing open surgery to relieve the pain reaction and the degree of restlessness, and reduce stress response during extubation.