Objective To investigate the effect of T-cadherin combined with cisplatin (cis-diaminodichloroplatinum, CDDP) on cisplatin resistant melanoma cell line. Methods CDDP resistance B16F10(CDDP-R B16F10) was induced by exposure to high and gradually increased dose of CDDP.The T-cadherin plasmid was transfected into CDDP-R B16F10. The expression of T-cadherin was measured by streptavidin-peroxidase (SP) of immunohistochemistry method. The effects of T-cadherin combined with cisplatin on proliferation and apoptosis of CDDP-R B16F10 were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Results The protein of T-cadherin could be detected in T-cadherin transfected cells by immunohistochemistry SP method. The inhibition rate of the proliferation apoptosis of pEGFP-N1-T-cadherin combined with cisplatin group (61.5%) was obviously higher than that of other groups(P<0.05),and the apoptosis rate(19.43±2.52)% was significantly higher than that of other groups(P<0.05). Conclusion T-cadherin combined with cisplatin can inhibit the proliferation of CDDP-R B16F10 cells and induce apoptosis of CDDP-R B16F10 cells. T-cadherin can reverse the cisplatin resistance of CDDP-R B16F10.
Objective To observe the effects of baclofen on mood disorders of rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), and further explore the possible mechanism. This study will provide experimental basis for the treatment of baclofen in emotional disorders after CCH. Methods The CCH model of rats was induced by two-vessel occlusion (2VO) surgery. Open field test and elevated plus-maze test were used to evaluate anxiety-like behavior of rats. Sucrose preference test and forced swimming test were used to evaluate depression-like behaviors in rats. The expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) in amygdala of rats were tested by Western blotting. The secretion of BDNF in SH-SY5Y cells after oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and baclofen treatment was detected by ELISA. Results CCH can cause anxiety-like and depression-like symptoms in rats, and baclofen can alleviate anxiety and depression symptoms caused by CCH. Moreover, baclofen could reverse the down-regulation of BDNF and TrkB induced by CCH. The in vitro experiment demonstrated that baclofen could ameliorate the decrease of BDNF secretion induced by OGD. Conclusion Baclofen could alleviate the mood disorders in rats with CCH, its mechanism possibly through a way of acting on BDNF-TrkB pathway.
Objective To observe the effect of Allium Stalk extract on myocardial fibrosis and TGF-β1 and Smad2 protein expression in rats after myocardial infarction,and to explore its inhibitory effect on myocardial fibrosis and its possible mechanism. Methods Acute myocardial injury (AMI) model was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery in rats. The model rats were randomly divided into blank model group, perindopril group, low-dose group, medium-dose group and high-dose group. In addition, a sham operation group was set up without ligation. After 1 week, normal saline was given to the sham group and the blank model group, and the other four groups were given different doses of corresponding drugs. After 12 weeks of continuous intragastric administration, serum levels of BNP、TNF-α and IL-6 in the six groups of rats were detected. Left ventricular myocardium was stained with HE and Masson staining, and TGF-β1, Smad2 protein and mRNA expression in myocardium were detected by Western blotting and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Results The HE staining showed obvious edema and necrosis of myocardial cells in the blank model group, and the structure was damaged and arranged in disorder. The number of edema and necrosis of myocardial cells in all treatment groups was reduced, complete myocardial cells could be seen locally, and the infiltration area of inflammatory cells was reduced. Masson staining showed that the myocardial tissue in the blank model group was severely damaged, the myocardial cell survival was small, and the collagen fiber increased significantly. After drug treatment, the rat myocardial cell integrity increased, and the collagen fiber decreased to different degrees. The effect of the high-dose group and perindopril group on inhibiting myocardial fibrosis was better than that of the low-dose and medium-dose group. Analysis of Image J Masson section showed that CVF value decreased significantly in the high-dose group and perindopril group. The ELISA assay showed that the levels of BNP, TNF-α and IL-6 in the blank model group were higher than those in the sham group (P<0.01). Compared with the blank model group, the content of BNP, TNF-α and IL-6 decreased in each treatment group (P<0.01).Western blot and PCR results showed that TGF-β1 and Smad2 protein expressions were significantly increased in the blank model group compared with the sham operation group (P<0.01). Compared with blank model group, high dose group, medium dose group and without perindopril captopril group TGF-β1 and Smad2 protein expression significantly reduced (P<0.01). Conclusion The inhibitory effect of Allium Stalk extract on myocardial fibrosis in rats with heart failure after myocardial infarction may be related to the reduction of inflammatory response and the inhibition of TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway.
Objective To evaluate the safety of Compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis Lotion by local application and to supply reference for clinical safe use. Methods Acute toxicity test: twelve rabbits were divided into the experimental group and the control group according to random principle. The rabbits were given 4 mL samples twice during 4 h within 24 h then observing the toxic reaction. Rectal stimulation experiment: eight rabbits were divided into the experimental group and the control group to test the rectum stimulus of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis Lotion. The rabbits were given 2ml sample once every morning before feeding for 8 days . The rabbits were sacrificed after 24hs of the last dose and get the rectum to observe the rectum mucosa and have histopathologic examination so as to examine the rectal mucous membrane irritation of Compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis Lotion. Skin allergy experiment: 40 Guinea pigs were divided into three groups medication administration group(20),2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene group(10) and negative control(10). They were sensitized at 0,7,14 d and were stimulated at 28 d. To observe whether allergic reactions occurred at 1 and 24 h after sensitization and at 24 and 48 h after stimulation. Results Under the dosage, no acute toxicity, no rectum stimulus and guinea pigs showed no allergic responses. Conclusion Compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis Lotion was safety by external use.
With the input for scientific and clinical research of COVID-19,the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 is also updating continuously.This article aimed to interpret《The diagnosis and treatment plan for COVID-19(The seventh trial edition)》,and compared it with the sixth edition. We try to review the key points of this updated edition,in order to serve for clinical practice.
Abnormal decrease of total leucocyte count and lymphocyte count are common symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Progressive decline of peripheral blood lymphocytes has become one of the clinical warning indicators of severe and critical COVID-19.Recommended medications in the national diagnosis and treatment plan for COVID-19(The 7th trial Edition) included alpha-interferon,lopinavir / ritonavir,ribavirin,and tocilizumab ,which might cause adverse effects including leukocytopenia and lymphocytopenia.Obviously,the continuous reduction of white blood cells and lymphocytes cannot be completely excluded as a manifestation of drug-induced diseases.Lymphocytopenia was primarily treated etiologically.An orally administrated drug leucogen,was used for prevention and therapy of leukopenia with proved effectiveness and safety.The dosage of 20 to 80 mg,three times daily of leucogen was recommended for preventing and treating lymphocytopenia according to alteration of white blood cells in COVID-19.In patients with Ⅲ/Ⅳ degree of leukocytopenia,granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor may be used in combination with leucogen for improving outcomes.More attention should be paid to drug-induced diseases in treatment of COVID-19.
Objective To provide references for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) by systematic literature search and analysis of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of virus infectious diseases. Methods Computer databases searches from Pubmed,Embase,Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials(CENTRAL),CNKI,VIP,and Wanfang databases were carried out within the time limit from the establishment of the database to February 22,2020.Descriptive analysis was made on the main results of the eligible articles that meet the inclusion criteria. Results There were 2036 initially screened literatures,and 392 articles of lopinavir/ ritonavir for viral infectious diseases were finally included in.Lopinavir/ritonavir was used in 244 studies of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS),2 studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS),4 studies of Middle East respiratory syndrome(MERS),and two studies on the treatment of COVID-19.Analysis results show that lopinavir/ritonavir was confirmed to be effective in the treatment of AIDS.Two studies on SARS showed that the treatment of lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin + glucocorticoid was effective.Animal studies supported the efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir alone or in combination with interferon 1b for MERS.And one case report also supported the lopinavir / ritonavir combined with interferon 1b in the treatment regimen for MERS.In the study of using abidol + lopinavir/ritonavir for the treatment of COVID-19,it was not found that lopinavir/ritonavir and abedore could improve symptoms or shorten the time of virus nucleic acid turning negative in respiratory samples. Conclusion The efficacy of lopinavir / ritonavir in the treatment of AIDS is definite,and that of in SARS treatment is effective.However,there is a lack of high-quality research evidence for COVID-19.In terms of safety,diarrhea,nausea and other gastrointestinal reactions were the main adverse reactions of short-term administration of lopinavir/ritonavir.Drug interactions should be taken into account in combination therapy,and dosage is recommended to be given according to the diagnosis and treatment plan.
Objective To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir combined with other antiviral for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods A total of 222 cases of discharged patients with novel coronavirus pneumonitis from January 20,2020 to February 22,2020 in the General Hospital of Central Theater Command were analyzed retrospectively.Among them,108 patients using lopinavir/ritonavir combined with other antiviral were included in the treatment group and 114 patients without using lopinavir/ritonavir were included in the control group.The clinical symptoms,laboratory test values,lung CT images and adverse reactions of the two groups before and after treatment were collected for analysis and comparison. Results There was no significant difference in the recovery time of symptoms between the two groups(P>0.05).The time of viral nucleic acids turning negative in the treatment group was (7.13±3.36) days,and that in the control group was (8.53±3.85) days,respectively,which showed the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).The time for improvement of lung CT images in the treatment group was shorter than that in the control group(P<0.05).Adverse drug reactions(ADRs) occurred in 30 cases in the treatment group and 15 cases in the control group,respectively,which were mainly manifested as the elevation of transaminase and bilirubin,nausea,vomiting,abdominal pain,diarrhea,rash,etc.The incidence of ADRs in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group(27.8% vs 13.2%,P<0.01). Conclusion Lopinavir/ritonavir combined with other antiviral can shorten the time of viral nucleic acids turning negative and the time for improvement of lung CT images,but the effects on clinical symptoms are not obvious,and the incidence of adverse drug reactions is high,so we should pay attention to the safety of lopinavir/ritonavir in clinical application.
As for the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors(ACEI) or angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blocker(ARB) drugs in hypertension patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19),this paper have studied the relationship between COVID-19 and angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2) and the relationship between ACE2 and ACEI or ARB drugs.The possible relationship between ACEI or ARB drugs and COVID-19 was proposed based on the known evidence.The results suggest that patients with hypertension who have used ACEI or ARB drugs do not need to stop taking the drugs,while for those who have never used those antihypertensive drugs,ACEI or ARB drugs is administered must be careful.
Objective To find out the main Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) syndromes of patients with corona-virus disease 2019(COVID-19) during recovery period and to guide the use of TCM therapy in order to promote patients rehabilitation. Methods The questionnaire surveys of the main TCM symptoms in patients with COVID-19 admitted from the isolation ward of Hubei Provincial Hospital of TCM from December 20,2019 to March 6,2020,and the major clinical syndromes were statistically analyzed. Results There were 115 patients discharged during the recovery period,of which 48.7% had cough; 36.5% had symptoms of fatigue; 26.1% had symptoms of dry mouth and throat; and 32.2% had abnormal appetite.Two patients had low fever after discharge and returned to normal after one day of observation at home. Conclusion The main symptoms of patients with COVID-19 are cough,fatigue,dry mouth and throat,loss of appetite,wheezing and chest tightness.Among them,29.6% were asymptomatic after discharge,7.0% showed syndrome of remaining poison not clear,26.1% showed deficiency of lung and spleen Qi,19.1% showed deficiency of Qi and Yin,18.3% showed deficiency of lung and spleen Qi,and phlegm stasis.
Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and mechanism of Qingfei Touxie Fuzheng recipe in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods One hundred COVID-19 patients were randomly divided into the treatment group (n=51) and the control group (n=49). According to the Diagnosis and Treatment Plan for COVID-19(Trial Fifth Edition),both groups were treated with western medicine based antiviral and anti-infection treatment.The treatment group were additionally treated with Qingfei Touxie Fuzheng recipe.After 10 days of treatment,the clinical symptoms,physical examination indexes,and CT manifestations of both groups were collected for analysis and comparison. Results After 10 days of treatment,the treatment group was significantly better than the control group in alleviating clinical symptoms fever,coughing and expectoration,chest tightness and shortness of breath,promoting the absorption of pulmonary lesions,improving oxygenation,etc..Compared with the control group,the levels of ESR,CRP,and IL-6 were significantly decreased in the treatment group(P<0.05),and the difference was statistically significant. The level of IFN-γ was increased,but there was no statistical difference between the data analysis and comparison(P>0.05). Conclusion The treatment of COVID-19 with Qingfei Touxie Fuzheng recipe combined with western medicines was more effective than the treatment with western medicine alone,and the possible mechanism lies in the up-regulation of “antiviral” factors and down-regulation of “pro-inflammatory” factors.
It is difficult and challenging to treat the severely and critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Malnutrition is one of the factors leading to the poor prognosis.Currently,COVID-19 is lack of effective targeted treatment,and nutrition therapy is one of the core contents of its comprehensive treatment measures.In order to ensure the reasonable and standardized implementation of nutrition therapy to improve the therapeutic effect,nutritional pharmacists in our hospital,as members of the multidisciplinary collaborative team,are actively standing on the front line of the treatment of COVID-19.On the basis of this practice,a standardized pharmaceutical care pathway of nutrition therapy for COVID-19 has been developed.
To relieve the shortage of hospital resources and control the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) ,Wuhan has built a large number of mobile cabin hospitals to treat patients with mild illness specifically.Even so,there were still too many patients and many of them had original diseases,which increased the difficulty and complexity of drug use.So,it is very important that pharmacists participate in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19,and provide available pharmaceutical care to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medication.The authors’ hospital took the lead of 2 mobile cabin hospitals.Pharmacists actively explore the new mode and key points of pharmaceutical care,while ensuring the supply of medicines for patients in mobile cabin hospital.In this study,we shared the thoughts and experience in order to provide reference for other mobile cabin hospitals.
Objective To investigate effect of general anesthesia combined with lumbar quadratus block on perioperative analgesic effect and T lymphocytes in patients underwent gynecologic tumor surgery. Methods The eighty patients scheduled for gynecologic oncologic radical operation(ovarian cancer, cervical cancer) were enrolled in and randomly divided into general anesthesia combined QLB group(Group A, n=40) and single general anesthesia group (Group B, n=40). Correspondingly, the dosage of sufentanil used in the operation, VAS scores in resting state at 1 h (t0), 6 h (t1), 24 h (t2), 48 h (t3) and amount of remedial parecoxib sodium for injection were recorded. The level of C
The discovery and development of anti-inflammatory drugs is an important topic in the field of biomedicine. Plant-derived natural products have many active compounds with novel structures, multiple targets, strong activities and little toxic side effects. Because of their good potential in drug-likeness, they are regarded as an important source of new anti-inflammatory drugs. This review outlines the research progress of anti-inflammatory activities and acting mechanism of plant-derived natural products in the last years, and provides beneficial suggestions for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs with potent activity and low toxicity.
Statins, as inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A(HMG-CoA) reductase, have been widely used in clinical practice. Statins are currently considered as one of the most effective measure for the treatment of atherosclerosis and play an important role in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, studies have found that in addition to inhibiting lipid synthesis, statins also have multiple effects such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, neuroprotection, immune regulation and inducing apoptosis. The purpose of this article is to elucidate the research progress of statins in the non-cardiovascular fields.
Objective To investigate the dissolution behavior similarity between self-made olmesartan medoxomil tablets and original patented preparation. Methods Through determining the dissolution curve of two preparations, the similarity factor was used to evaluate the similarity of dissolution curves. Results The dissolution curves of self-made olmesartan medoxomil tablets were significantly different from those of the original patented preparation when the particle size of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) was larger than 75 μm. The dissolution curves of self-made olmesartan medoxomil tablets (particle size of API was about 15 μm) were similar to those of the original preparation in four media. Conclusion The particle size of API is the key factor to determine the dissolution of olmesartan medoxomil tablets. The self-made tablets of micronized olmesartan medoxomil can achieve in vitro dissolution behavior similar to the original patented preparation.
Objective To determine the content of desloratadine in tablets by quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (qHNMR). Methods The qHNMR spectra were collected at 26.85 ℃ with 4.01 s acquisition time, 15 s relaxation delay and 48 scanning times. Proton signal peaks at δ7.41-7.48 of desloratadine were served as quantitative peaks. And the signal at δ7.59 of 1,2,4,5-trichlorobenzene was recorded as internal standard peaks. The results of qHNMR and HPLC were also compared. Results There was a linear relationship for desloratadine in the range of 1.84-11.86 mg·mL-1. The recoveries were in the range of 99.75%-101.61%. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 249.0 ng·mL-1 and the limit of detection (LOD) was 60.8 ng·mL-1. It was showed that 1,2,4,5-trichlorobenzene did not affect the stability of desloratadine. The determination results of qHNMR were generally consistent with those of HPLC. Conclusion The qHNMR method could be used for the quantitative determination of desloratadine tablets with the advantages of fast, simple and accurate .
Objective To prepare a curcumin-loaded polymethyl methacrylate nanoparticles (Cur-PMMA NPs) and to evaluate their effects on lung cancer A549 cell viability. Methods Cur-PMMA NPs were prepared by emulsion polymerization. The diameter and morphology of blank nanoparticles (PMMA NPs) and loaded drug nanoparticles Cur-PMMA NPs were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLC), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The surface of the NPs was modified with a bioadhesive poly acrylic acid (PAA) to ensure a longer residence time of the NPs in the lesion. The effect of Cur-PMMA NPs on the activity of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells was examined by MTT assay;the uptake of A549 cells was compared by Nile red labeling. Results The diameters of PMMA NPs and Cur-PMMA NPs were (192.66±5.00) and (199.16±5.00) nm, respectively. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of Cur-PMMA NPs are 6.0% and 93.0%, respectively. The drug release time in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 0.9% sodium chloride solution and serum can be as long as 10 days. The release amount on the third day was about 55.0%, which was the fastest. Uptake of the dye Cur-PMMA NPs by A549 cells was observed for 30 minutes of incubation. The inhibitory effect of Cur-PMMA NPs on A549 cells was dose- and time-dependent, but its effect was not statistically different from free Cur. Conclusion Cur-PMMA NPs have good drug controlled release, cell uptake, and activity inhibitory effect on lung cancer A549 cell.
Objective To screen the best extraction process of Xiaoer Hanting granule and to study its pharmacodynamic effects. Methods The SD rats of small and large dosage group received injections of Xiaoer Hanting granules for 7 days. After the last administration, the rat self-sweat model was established by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine, and the sweat points of the plantar skin of the rats were counted. At the same time, the content of astragaloside IV and isoflavone glucoside was determined by HPLC, and the transfer rate was calculated. Results All groups of the Xiaoer Hanting granules showed the effect of reducing the skin sweat points of the plantar part of rats. The whole water extraction process group and the water extraction and alcohol precipitation process group could significantly reduce the skin sweat points(P<0.05)of the plantar part of rats, in which the water-extracting alcohol precipitation process group was more significant(P<0.01). Conclusion The water extracting alcohol precipitation is the best technique to Xiaoer Hanting granule.
Objective To establish a rapid antibody quantification method based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR ) technology. Methods Based on SPR technology and the high reaction specificity of Protein A and the antibody Fc fragment, the response unit (Ru) between Protein A and the antibody reference at gradient concentration was analyzed to establish the standard curve. The concentration of the unknown antibody was achieved by measuring its binding value to Protein A. The accuracy, repeatability, specificity, linear range and durability of the method are also investigated. Results The established antibody quantification method was specific. The Ru value and IgG1 content showed a good linear relation when antibody content was in the range of 20 to 20 000 ng·mL-1. Meets all of the needs in accuracy,repeatability, and linear range. Conclusion This method could be used in antibody quantification.
Objective To analyze pathogenic bacteria in urine culture of community acquired urinary tract infections (CAUTI) patients and to provide basis for clinical treatment of CAUTI. Methods A total of 564 isolated pathogens from CAUTI were collected. Drug susceptibility test was carried out by disk diffusion method. The WHONET 5.6 software was used for statistical analysis. Results The main pathogen causing CAUTI was Escherichia coli, accounting for 62.8%. The incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis were 58.2%, 44.2% and 12.5%, respectively. The resistance rate of Enterococcus spp. isolated from adults to fluoroquinolones was significantly higher than that of children. Enterococcus spp. was the main isolated Gram-positive bacteria. No Enterococcus spp. resistant to linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin or tegacycline was found. The resistant rate of Enterococcus faecium was higher than Enterococcus faecalis when tested with most antibiotics. Conclusion Escherichia coli is the main pathogen of CAUTI. Clinicians should pay close attention to the changes of isolates and drug resistance, and use antibiotics reasonably.
Objective To investigate the development of therapeutic drug monitoring in pediatric hospitals of China. Methods Questionnaire survey was conducted on the TDM situation of 20 pediatric tertiary specialized hospitals(maternal and child health care hospitals) in 20 provinces,municipalities and autonomous regions across the country.Statistics and analysis were conducted on the survey data to make recommendations. Results A total of 23 questionnaires were distributed and 22 valid questionnaires were collected.The recovery rate of the questionnaire was 95.7%; And 20 questionnaires were included for further study,with an effective rate of 90.9%.The hospitals participating in the survey all carried out TDM of valproic acid,but only 50.0% of the them monitored 5 or more drugs; The detection methods were HPLC and EMIT. Currently, most hospitals only provide monitoring values,which cannot guide clinical individualized treatment.The quality control of TDM in some hospitals is limited to internal quality control. Conclusion The survey results reflect the current status of TDM development in pediatric hospitals in China,and it is in need to be further improved in the fields of the number of varieties,detection methods,quality control methods,and interpretation of results.
Objective To study the role of clinical pharmacists in the management of clinical use of antimicrobial , and to explore a more suitable method for calculating the strength of antimicrobial drugs, so as to provide references for their rational use. Methods Retrospective analysis of antimicrobial drugs use and rational drugs use rate of inpatients before and after intervention by clinical pharmacists in Anhui Children's Hospital from January to July of 2017 and 2018. Results The usage rate of carbapenems decreased from (64.80±4.80)% to (54.59±4.70)%(P<0.05).The intensity of consumption decreased from (44.04±1.70) to (32.75±3.30)(P<0.05).The intensity of consumption(counted by actual usage) decreased from (27.26±2.60) to (20.93±2.70)(P<0.05).Total amount of antimicrobial consumption in inpatients as a percentage of total amount of drugs decreased from (23.27±0.80) % to(21.65±1.50) %.Cost of antimicrobial drugs per patient discharged decreased from(856.03±25.70) yuan to(767.20±50.20) yuan.The rate of unreasonable evaluation of antimicrobial drug records continues to decline. Conclusion Intervention by clinical pharmacists can promote the rational use of antibacterial drug and propose a more suitable method for calculating the use strength of antimicrobial drugs.
The patent protection of polymorph drugs is an important mean to cross the chemical structure of drugs and increase the effective period of drug patents. The number of polymorph drug patents at home and abroad is increasing year by year, but the disputes between patent companies on polymorph drug patents are also keep growing. According to the classification of pharmacodynamic effects, the polymorph drugs were divided into anti-tumor, anti-viral, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular, antibiotics, antidiabetics and other crystalline drugs in this paper. The typical cases were analyzed and feasible suggestions were provided for the application or investigation of the pharmaceutical crystal form patent.
Consistency evaluation of generic drugs is an important part of the new health care reform. The generic drugs passed consistency evaluation have the advantages of reliable quality and low price, which can reduce medical expenditure. Therefore, it plays an important role in improving the overall level of medical services and can produce better economic and social benefits. This paper concentrates on the interpretation of the relevant policies of the consistency evaluation of generic drugs in China at the present stage. This paper reviews the policy history of generic drug consistency evaluation in the United States and Japan. The possible problems in the process of policy implementation are also discussed.