Objective To investigate the effect of isochlorogenic acid B (ICAB) on atorvastatin (ATO) induced liver injury in mice and to clarify the potential protective mechanisms. Methods ATO induced liver injury model was established in mice, and ICAB was orally administered to mice at three doses (5, 10 and 20 mg·kg-1).Serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px)were measured.Liver cell morphology was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining method.And the effects of ICAB on the protein expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid- 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining.The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) in mice hepatocyte were determined by RT-PCR method. Results ICAB (5,10 and 20 mg·kg-1) could remarkably protect against ATO induced liver injury in mice indicated by reducing the elevated levels of serum aminotransferases and hepatic MDA content,and significantly restored the impaired antioxidants.Meanwhile,the histopathological changes were also attenuated by ICAB in mice.In addition,ICAB could increase the protein expression of Nrf2 and promote its nuclear translocation,which further increase the mRNA expression of HO-1,NQO1 and GCLC. Conclusion ICAB has protective effect against ATO induced liver injury in mice,the mechanism of which may be associated with promoting Nrf2 into the nucleus and strengthening the expression HO-1,NQO1 and GCLC in liver tissue.
Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect and mechanism of tofatinib on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats. Methods Totally 50 female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into normal control group,model control group,low-dose,medium-dose and high-dose tofacitinib group(10 for each group).The rats were given subcutaneous injection of the myelin basic protein of guinea pig spinal cord and complete Freund's adjuvant immunizing antigen to induce EAE model.The normal control group and model control group were fed 0.9% sodium chloride solution,and low-dose,medium-dose and high-dose tofacitinib group were given tofacitinib 1,2 and 4 mg·kg-1·d-1 for 10 days from 3 days before the beginning .The incubation period,progressive stage and neurological dysfunction score of the onset of the peak were recorded.Afterward, rats were executed at the peak of onset,whereas rats free of disease were executed after 8 weeks from the beginning of experiment.The pathologic changes of rat brain tissue were observed by HE staining.The degree of demyelination and active astrocytes in brain tissue were detected via immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with the model control group,the incubation period extended,progressive stage shortened, and neurological dysfunction score were deceased in tofacicitinib groups. And the inflammatory cell infiltration in brain tissue,the degree of demyelination and active astrocytes in brain tissue were deceased significantly in tofacitinib groups (P<0.01, P<0.05),The protective effect of tofatinib was in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion Tofacitinib has inhibition effect in Wistar rats with EAE in a dose-dependent manner,and its mechanism may be related with the decrease of the inflammatory cell infiltration in brain tissue,the remission of myelinoclasis and the suppression of activation of astrocytes.
Objective To prepare etomidate micelle solution and to research the sedative effects in rats. Methods Etomidate-loaded Pluronic micelle solution (EtoPM) was prepared using thin-film rehydration method.The morphology,particle size distribution,Zeta potential,encapsulation efficiency of drug-loaded micelles,and in vitro drug release profile of EtoPM were determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM),dynamic light scattering (DLS), spectrophotometry,etc.The in vivo anesthetic effects of EtoPM were studied by in vivo experiments with rats. Results The drug-loaded micelles in EtoPM showed spherical shape,with the average particle size of (85.53±10.25) nm and Zeta potential of (-4.31±1.04) mV.The drug encapsulation efficiency was (73.14±1.85)%.The drug release of EtoPM was faster than that of the commercially available etomidate emulsion injection (P<0.01).Both EtoPM and the etomidate emulsion injection took effect quickly after tail vein injection into the rats,while the anesthesia recovery of EtoPM group was significantly faster (P<0.01). Conclusion Pluronic micelles can well solubilize etomidate,and can also quickly release the drug.With rapid onset and recovery,EtoPM fits well to the requirement of general anesthetics.Therefore, EtoPM is a promising etomidate injection.
Objective To study the effect of ketamine combined with propofol on streptozotocin-induced depressive symptoms in rats and its effect on the expression of STAT3 signaling pathway. Methods Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group,model control group,fluoxetine group and anesthesia group,with 15 rats in each group.The anesthesia group,model control group and fluoxetine group were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (60 mg·kg-1).After 28 days,the anesthesia group were intraperitoneally injected with ketamine (10 mg·kg-1) and propofol (80 mg·kg-1),the fluoxetine group was given fluoxetine solution[0.2 mg·(100 g)-1] ,and the normal control group and the model control group were intraperitoneally injected with 0.9% sodium chloride solution.The injection repeated for 7 days in each group.The open field experiments were used to evaluated the change of rats’ behavior.The content of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β,and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in prefrontal cortex were detected.In amygdala,the content of total-STAT3,TNF-α,total-Jak2 and gp130 were determined. Results Compared with the normal control group,the number of upright, piercing,and modification times of the rats in the model control group decreased.Compared with the model control group,the number of upright,piercing,and modification times of the rats in the fluoxetine group and anesthesia group increased.The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Compared with the normal control group,the content of IL-6 and IL-1β in the prefrontal cortex of the model control group were increased,and the expression of BDNF was decreased.Compared with the model control group,the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β in the prefrontal cortex of rats in the fluoxetine group,anesthesia group decreased,and the expression of BDNF increased,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05);compared with the normal control group,the model control group total-STAT3,TNF-α and gp130 content increased; compared with the model control group,the total-STAT3,TNF-α and gp 130 content in the fluoxetine group and anesthesia group were decreased,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Ketamine combined with propofol anesthesia can significantly alleviate streptozotocin-induced depressive symptoms in rats,and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of Janus kinase/signal transduction,transcription activator (JAK/STAT) and reduction the content of inflammatory cytokines.
Objective To study the effects of resveratrol (Res) on apoptosis and oxidative stress in neurons during hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R). Methods PC12 cells were cultured and induced to differentiate into neurons.They were divided into control group (no serum medium+normoxia treatment),H/R group (no serum medium+hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment),and different concentrations of Res group (40 or 80 μmol·L-1 resveratrol+hypoxia reoxygenation treatment),the cell proliferation activity,oxidative stress product content and mitochondrial apoptosis molecule expression were measured after treatment. Results At 12,24,and 48 h after reoxygenation,the cell proliferation activity of the control group was significantly higher than that of the H/R group,40 μmol·L-1 Res group,and 80 μmol·L-1 Res group,and the 80 μmol·L-1 Res group was higher than the 40 μmol·L-1 Res group and the H/R group,and the 40 μmol·L-1 Res group was higher than the H/R group,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).The content of ROS,MDA, AOPP,8-OHdG and the expression of Bax,caspase-3,Bax mRNA,and caspase-3 mRNA in the control group were significantly lower than that in the H/R group,40 μmol·L-1 Res group,and 80 μmol·L-1 Res group.The 80 μmol·L-1 Res group was lower than the 40 μmol·L-1 Res group and the H/R group,and the 40 μmol·L-1 Res group was lower than the H/R group,the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).The expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-2 mRNA in the control group were significantly higher than those in the H/R group,40 μmol·L-1 Res group and 80 μmol·L-1 Res group.The 80 μmol·L-1 Res group was higher than the 40 μmol·L-1 Res group and the H/R group,and the 40 μmol·L-1 Res group was higher than the H/R group.The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Resveratrol can inhibit the apoptosis and oxidative stress of neurons during hypoxia and reoxygenation.
Objective To investigate the drug utilization of α-interferon in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19),and to provide references for its rational use. Methods Medical records of patients who treated with α-interferon in a designated hospital for severe COVID-19 from February 1st, 2020 to February 29th, 2020 was retrospectively collected. The demographic characteristics,usage and dosage, timing,the course of treatment and the combined use of other antiviral drugs in patients with severe COVID-19 were analyzed. Results The results showed that there were 261 patients received α-interferon therapy,all of them were treated by atomization inhalation,and the usage and dosage were in accordance with the national diagnosis and treatment plan for COVID-19.The shortest interval between α-interferon treatment and symptom onset was one day, and the longest one was 30 days. The course of treatment varied between 1 to 16 days. Moreover,211 patients were given a combination of α-interferon and other antiviral drugs, including arbidol, lopinavir / ritonavir, oseltamivir, ribavirin, ganciclovir,chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine. Conclusion There are still some issues remained to be solved in the treatment of COVID-19 by α-interferon,such as ambiguous timing and treatment courses. In some cases, three or more kinds of antiviral drugs were used in combination,so the safety and rationality of drug use should be extensively concerned.
Objective To analyze the clinical application of arbidol in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19),and to provide suggestions for clinical rational application. Methods Medical records of patients with COVID-19 who were treated with arbidol from February 1st, 2020 to February 29th, 2020 were collected. And the demographic characteristics,usage,dosage and timing of arbidol,the course of treatment,and combined use of antiviral drugs in patients with arbidol were analyzed by retrospective study. Results A total of 303 patients received abidol were collected,and most of them were older than 50 (174 cases,57.43%). The timing of arbidol treatment was from 1 to 30 days. The most common usage and dosage was 0.2 g once,3 times a day (98.68%). And the course of treatment was from 2 to 25 days. In 42.24% cases,arbidol was used in combination with other antiviral drugs. The combined antiviral drugs include α-interferon (19.14%),lopinavir/ritonavir (13.53%),etc.. Conclusion The utilization of arbidol in patients with severe COVID-19 were generally reasonable,but there were large variations in the timing and duration of medication. In a few cases,patients were treated with 3 or more kinds of antiviral drugs.Therefore, attention should be paid on the rational use and drug safety.
Objective To retrospectively analyze the data related to the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the square cabin hospital, and to explore the rationality of medication treatment. Methods A total of 813 patients with COVID-19 in the square cabin hospital were collected and analyzed with SPSS 25.0 software for statistical description and statistical analysis of the patients' gender, age,clinical diagnosis,medication,hospitalization days,outcomes,etc. Results Of the 813 COVID-19 patients,there were 418 (51.41%) male,395 (48.59%) female, and 144 (17.71%)patients with underlying diseases.There were 505 (62.12%) suspected cases and 308 (37.88%) confirmed cases.The frequency of gender, underlying disease,and clinical classification had significant differences among different age groups (P <0.05).Arbidol and Lianhua Qingwen capsules were widely used in the square cabin hospital,which had played a certain role in the treatment of COVID-19 patients.The frequency of arbidol,Lianhua Qingwen capsule,Qingfei Paidu decoction,and moxifloxacin were 341,339,232,and 227,respectively.In addition,the application of Lianhua Qingwen capsule,Qiangli Loquat Dew,and moxifloxacin among different age groups were significantly different (P <0.05).Moreover,the outcomes of patients among different age groups were also significantly different (P<0.05). Conclusion In the square cabin hospital,there were differences in gender,underlying diseases,clinical types and outcomes of patients with different age groups.The medications were basically reasonable,but the possible unreasonable use of ribavirin and moxifloxacin should be supervised.
Objective To provide references for the treatment of COVID-19 by systematic literature searching and evaluating the efficacy and safety of favipiravir in the treatment of virus infectious diseases. Methods Search the databases includes Ovid EMbase,Ovid Medline,Ovid CENTRAL,CNKI.Descriptive analysis was made on the main results of the eligible articles that meet the inclusion criteria. Results There were 265 initially screened articles that involved 23 viruses,and 11 clinical trials of favipiravir for viral infectious diseases were included in.Favipiravir was used in four studies of influenza, three studies of Ebola(EBO),one study of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome(SFTS),one study of Lassa(LAS), one study of COVID-19 and one study of safety.The results showed that favipiravir had good clinical efficacy in influenza,EBO,SFTS,LAS and COVID-19.It was shown that a shorter viral clearance time was found for the favipiravir arm versus the control arm [median (interquartile range, IQR), 4 (2.5-9) d versus 11 (8-13) d, P<0.001]. Conclusion Favipiravir is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug,but there are few clinical studies and most studies are conducted on animals and cells.Clinical studies show that it has good clinical efficacy and can be recommended for the treatment of COVID-19.Large-scale clinical trials are also expected.
In face of COVID-19 epidemic outbreaks,Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital was built to take in a large number of COVID-19 patients for quarantine treatment.Because of its particularity,the hospital had its unique characteristics in terms of pharmacy administration and pharmaceutical care when compared with other hospitals.The practices of pharmacy administration and pharmaceutical care in the hospital were reported in the article,to provide an experience for the urgent handling of public health emergency.
To explore new drug dispensing pattern in square cabin hospital under coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) circumstances.The contactless drug delivery was carried out by using 5G cloud technology and unmanned vehicle.The contactless pattern was more suitable for the distribution of temporary prescription and spare drugs in the square cabin hospital.Under the special circumstances of the epidemic, using unmanned vehicle technology to deliver medicine can meet the medication needs of patients in the square cabin hospitals, reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections, and protect medical staff throughout the entire process.
Objective To establish a mathematical model to predict the interval of relative density of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) compound decoction by measuring the liquid output rate,paste-forming rate,relative density and other parameters of 197 decoctions. Methods Establishing a mathematic model of relative density 95% predicting interval of TCM compound decoction,which is based on the decoction parameters of 197 kinds single TCM decoction pieces.Taking Maxingshigan Decoction (MXSGD) as an example,establish a mathematical model of the relative density 95% predicting interval of correlate TCM compound decoction.The two mathematical models were verified by the decoction experiment of MXSGD. Results Based on the decoction parameters of 197 kinds of single TCM decoction pieces,the mathematical model 1 of relative density 95% predicting interval of TCM compound decoction is Ycompound =(0.000 4Xcompound+0.996 4)±0.004 883×
Objective To establish a mathematical model to monitor the relative density of herbal decoction for cough and asthma. Methods Collecting 28 kinds of Traditional Chinese Medicine for cough and asthma which were frequently used in clinic.The results of water absorption, liquid yield, extraction rate and relative density were evaluated .The mathematical model was established based on the regression equation fitted by relative density and extraction rate.Five representative formulations were chosen to verify the mathematical model in compound decoction. Results The mathematical model of extraction rate (X,%) to relative density (Y) were:Y=(0.000 5X+0.992 4)±0.002 148×
Objective To establish a mathematical model to predict the relative density interval of Traditional Chinese medicine decoction of whole grass flower and leaf and to explore the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine decoction Methods A total of 29 kinds of representative Chinese medicine of whole grass flower and leaf,which was high frequently used in clinic,was selected.By measuring the key parameters such as the water absorption,liquid output,extraction rate and relative density the mathematical model of the relative density interval of decoction is established based on the linear regression equation of relative density and extraction rate.The model was verified by the relative density of a single formulation and a compound formulation consisted by 7 kinds of whole grass flower and leaf. Results The linear regression equation of relative density (Y) to extraction rate (X,%):Y =0.000 3X+1.000 2,r=0.959 3,linear range was 5.2%-53.3%.The linear relationship of relative density to extraction rate is significant.The 95% prediction interval of relative density of compound decoction is Yprediction=(0.000 3Xcompound+1.000 2 )±0.002 152×
Objective To establish a mathematical model to predict the interval of relative density of Chinese herbal fruits or seeds decoction by measuring the liquid output,paste-forming rate and other parameters. Methods To determinate the water absorption,liquid output, paste-forming rate and relative density of 45 kinds of fruits or seeds decoction with high frequency used.Based on the linear regression equation of corrected relative density to paste-forming rate, establish the mathematical model of relative density predicting interval of the fruits or seeds compound decoction.The relative density of six kinds of fruits or seeds compound herbal decoctionwas used to verified the mathematical model. Results The linear regression equations of relative density (Y) to paste-forming rate (X,%) of 45 kinds of fruits or seeds is:Y=0.000 4X+0.997 5,r=0.977 0, linear range was 1.9%-73.3%.The linear relationship of relative density to paste-forming rate is significant.The mathematical model of corrected relative density 95% prediction interval of the fruits or seeds herbal compound decoction is:Yprediction= (0.000 4Xcompound+0.997 5)±0.002 74×
Objective To establish a mathematical model for predicting the relative density Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) decoction of root and rhizome,and to study the application of relative density monitoring in the quality evaluation of TCM decoction. Methods By measuring the water absorption rate, liquid yield, paste yield, relative density and other parameters of root and rhizome decoction,the mathematics of the relative density prediction interval of TCM decoction was established by linear regression of relative density and paste yield.The model was verified by single herb or compound TCM decoction of root or rhizome. Results The linear regression equation of relative density (Y) of 37 commonly used root and rhizopus herbs on the extract rate (X,%) was as follows:Y=3.314 9×10-4X+0.999 7,r=0.960 1,with a linear range from 10.85% to 69.60%,and the linear relationship of relative density to the yield of the paste is significant.Most of the validations are within the predicted interval of the mathematical model. Conclusion The mathematical model established in this study can be used to predict the relative density of TCM decoction of roots and rhizomes.The monitoring of relative density as a quality control has certain feasibility,which is of great significance in the quality evaluation of Chinese medicine decoction.
Objective To investigate the correlation between the density of decoction and the rate of extract in animal decoction pieces and mineral decoction pieces. Methods The density of decoction and the rate of extract were determined in 75 batches of 15 kinds of animal decoction pieces and 10 kinds of mineral decoction pieces. The K-mean cluster analysis was carried out, and the classification was combined with the actual situation. Correlation regression analysis was made for the density of decoction and the rate of extract of different classes of decoction pieces. Regression forecast was validated by experiment. Results All the mineral decoction pieces and shell animal decoction pieces were gathered into one category. The density of decoction and the rate of extract were low, and there was no correlation between them. The animal decoction pieces other than shellfish were taken as another category, which had a significant linear correlation between the density of decoction and the rate of extract. The simulated linear equation was Y=0.000 5X+0.994 0,r=0.864.The results of decoction test of 9 batches of non shell animal decoction pieces showed that the actual water decoction density was within the range predicted by the equation. Conclusion The decoction quality evaluation of shellfish and mineral decoction pieces were not feasible based on the relationship between the decoction density and the rate of extract. The linear relationship model of decoction density and the rate of extract of non shell animal decoction pieces could provide reference for the decoction quality evaluation of non shell animal decoction pieces.
Objective To rapidly and accurately distinguish Zhibai Dihuang Pills (concentrated pills) from different manufacturers and whether in the period of validity. Methods First, Zhibai Dihuang Pills from different manufacturers and different storage time were collected and the near infrared original spectral fingerprint of which were scanned; Then, extracting the variance formations from the near infrared original spectral of Zhibai Dihuang Pills with different characteristics by chemometrics method, the number of misjudgment and performance index (PI) were used as evaluation indexes to investigate the effect of different spectral pretreatment methods, spectral range on the discrimination effect of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) fingerprint discriminant analysis models.and the best model conditions were confirmed;Last, by the triple cross validation method,the accuracy of the models were examined. Results Zhibai Dihuang Pills (concentrated pills) from different manufacturers can be distinguished in the conditions of the spectral pretreatment method of MSC+SD+ND(Multiplicative Scatter Correction + Second Derivative+ Norris Derivative)and 7575.57-4157.77 cm-1 band interval,the model established can distinguish the valid period and expired Zhibai Dihuang Pills (concentrated pills) in the condition of MSC+SG spectral pretreatment method and 8003.94-4195.20 cm-1 band interval. Conclusion These modles can effectively distinguish Zhibai Dihuang Pills (concentrated pills) from different manufacturers and which in the valid period.
Objective To prepare cefpodoxime proxetil for suspension and to establish a method to determine the dissolution of it. Methods The indices, such as sedimentation volume,dissolution rate and hygroscopic weight,were used to evaluate and optimized the formation. Dissolution testing was performed using paddle method in the dissolution medium of glycine-sodium chloride-hydrochloric acid solution (pH 3.0) under stirring rate of 75 r·min-1. The dissolution samples were obtained at 30 min and the concentration was analyzed by ultraviolet spectrophotometric method under the detection wavelength of 259 nm. The Slurry medium was used as dissolution medium, which was prepared as followed: hydrochloric acid solution (pH 1.2), water, glycine-sodium chloride-hydrochloric acid solution (pH 3.0) acetate buffer (pH 4.0),phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). The dissolution sampling time was set as 5,10,15,20 and 30 min. Results The optimal formulation was as followed: cefpodoxime proxetil 5.0%,sugar 45.0%,croscarmellose sodium 3.0%,xanthan gum 1.0%, hypromellose 3.72%,mannitol 35.0%,silicon dioxide 2.0%,aspartame 1.8%,NaCl 0.8%,sodium glutamate 1.0%,yellow ferric oxide 0.12%,and sweet orange powder essence 0.05%. Good linear correlation was achieved in the concentration range from 1.66 to 16.6 μg·mL-1. The test solution was stable after 4 h storage at room temperature. Conclusion The preparation of cefpodoxime proxetil for suspension is simple. The method is accurate and suitable for the measurements of dissolution profiles of cefpodoxime proxetil for suspensions.
Objective To establish the quality standard for compound Huanghuai enema. Methods Thin layer chromatography(TLC)was adopted for the qualitative identification of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei Palnata and Sophora japonica.The content of aloe-emodin,rhein,emodin,chrysophanol and physcionein were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The spots of TLC were distinctived without any interference from the negative references.The determination of aloe-emodin,rhein,emodin,chrysophanol and physcionein showed good linear relation in the range of 4.26-34.08, 17.92-143.36, 4.17-33.36, 7.31-58.48, 2.04-16.36 ng, respectively(r≥0.999 7).The average recoveries of aloe-emodin,rhein,emodin,chrysophanol and physcionein were 101.02%, 100.06%, 99.33%, 99.16%, 99.60%, with RSD 1.57%, 0.94%, 1.05%, 1.29%, 2.21%, respectively. Conclusion The TLC and HPLC methods are simple,rapid,accurate and repeatable,which provide the effective methods for the quality control of Compound Huanghuai Enema.
Objective To establish a method for the simultaneous determination of the content of chlorogenic acid,isochlorogenic acid A and luteoloside in Picris L. by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods A Waters Atlantis T3 (4.6 mm×150 mm,3 μm) chromatographic column was used with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphate solution at a flow rate of 0.8 mL·min-1.The detection wavelength was 348 nm,the column temperature was 30 ℃,and the injection volume was 10 μL. Results The separation of chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A and luteoloside were good. The linear range of chlorogenic acid,isochlorogenic acid A and luteoloside were 9.313-596.000 μg·mL-1,6.552-419.333 μg·mL-1 and 1.242-79.467 μg·mL-1,respectively.The mean recovery rate was 100.28%(RSD=1.26%,n=6),99.95%(RSD=1.54%,n=6),and 100.29%(RSD=1.44%,n=6),respectively. Conclusion This method is simple,accurate,and reproducible,which can be used for quality control of the Picris L..
Objective To provide a practical reference for assessing the rationality of off-label use of monteluster sodium tablets by an evidence-based medical approach. Methods All cases of off-label use of monteluster sodium tablets found was randomly selected from October 2017 to October 2018 in the third people's hospital of bengbu city were collected and their evidence-based proofs were assessed following an evidence-base evaluation procedure developed based on Cochrane Handbook 5.1 and GRADE system. Results Evidences of six off-label drugs including urticaria, chronic rhinitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, chronic sinusitis and vasomotor rhinitis were found by searching authoritative medical books at home and abroad, no evidence for other off-label use. Conclusion Assessment of off-label use by evidence-based approach is helpful to make scientific judgment on the rationality and effectiveness of drug use in medical institutions.
Objective By analyzing the distribution status of registered pharmacists in urban and rural retail pharmacies in China,putting forward corresponding suggestions for promoting the rational distribution of registered pharmacists in urban and rural retail pharmacies. Methods According to a survey of the distribution of registered pharmacists in retail pharmacies in 14 provinces, and analyzing the data of interviews in four provinces and typical pharmacies on the spot.Making an in-depth analysis of survey data and the causes of differences between registered pharmacists in urban and rural retail pharmacies by using fishbone diagram. Results The scale of registered pharmacists in China has increased year by year,but the geographical distribution is uneven,and the difference between urban and rural areas is large. accounting for more than 80% of rural areas in 14 provinces Registered pharmacists in retail pharmacies are more scarce than in cities. Conclusion It is recommended to implement the differentiated allocation policy for pharmacists in urban and rural retail pharmacies in China,to solve the problem of insufficient pharmacists in rural areas by means of two-level or three-level management of pharmacists and encourage pharmacists to go to the countryside,so that rural residents will get the pharmacy services.