In November 2020,the American College of Cardiology (ACC) published “2020 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway for Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation or Venous Thromboembolism Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention or With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease”,which provides a framework for decision-making among patients who require concomitant use of an anticoagulant(AC) and antiplatelet therapy(APT).Expert consensus decision pathway (ECDP) made antithrombotic recommendations for four clinical situations: a patient with atrial fibrillation(AF) receiving an OAC who now needs percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) and APT,a patient on APT for ASCVD with new-onset AF requiring an OAC,a patient with prior venous thromboembolism (VTE) receiving an AC who now needs PCI and APT,a patient on APT for ASCVD with a new VTE requiring an ACP.This paper has made a comprehensive interpretation of this path,including a number of path maps and medication forms,in order to provide reference for clinical treatment.
Parkinson's disease (PD) can be probably divided into four parts: prodromal stage,early stage (stable stage),mid-late stage(unstable stage),and advanced stage.Currently,the treatment for motor symptoms of PD includes dopamine drugs,dopamine receptor agonists,monoamine oxidase B inhibitors,catecholamine-O-methyltransferase inhibitors,anticholinergic drugs,etc.. The treatment of non-motor symptoms is mainly symptomatic treatment.The symptoms of PD are different in different stages,and the goals and emphasis of treatment are also different. Therefore,this article reviews the drug treatment of different stages of Parkinson's disease.
Pre-protein-converting enzyme subtilisin kexin9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have attracted much attention in lipid management. However, the potential association of PCSK9 with brain cholesterol homeostasis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is little known.Studies have shown that brain cholesterol depends on in situ synthesis, and the level of PCSK9 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with AD is elevated,but PCSK9 cannot cross the blood-brain barrier.This paper will elaborate the possible mechanism and targets of PCSK9 involve in brain cholesterol homeostasis and AD,and further explore whether the application of PCSK9 inhibitors in the cardiovascular field has an impact on the neurocognitive function of patients.
The surface of titanium has good biological properties, and its implant can promote osteogenesis in bone tissue. However, in the process of implant integration into bone tissue, bone infection, bone defect, osteoporosis, and other related diseases also appear one after another. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is used to prevent, treat, and diagnose diseases. It is a very effective method to apply its active compounds in titanium implants to promote osteogenesis. Therefore, it is of great significance to construct the carrier for active compounds of TCM, to study its loading mode and to realize the surface combination of TCM and titanium implants. This paper reviews the osteogenic effect of active compounds of TCM, the carrier of drug loading on the surface of titanium implants, the mode of drug binding, and the application of active compounds of TCM on the surface of titanium implant. It is hoped that the active compounds of TCM can be better applied to the surface of titanium implants and provide new research ideas for promoting local osteogenesis.