Since the end of 2019,the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide and become among the leading causes of death internationally. To mitigate the effects of the virus on public health,economy and society,vaccine research and developing organizations worldwide are actively developing various types of vaccines,including inactivated vaccines,virus-vectored vaccines,protein subunit vaccines,mRNA vaccines, and DNA vaccines. We review the most up-to-date published data regarding the safety and efficacy of 8 main vaccines to provide references for vaccine development and clinical use.
Objective To discuss the pathological process and characteristics of the hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension models in mice under different conditions. Methods Male C57 mice were randomly divided into the Normal group,Hypoxia group,Hypoxia+SU5416 group,Hypoxia+Sildenafil group,and Hypoxia+SU5416+Sildenafil group.The mice were feed under hypoxia environment with 10% O2 except for the Normal group.The body weight of each mouse was recorded.After 2,3 or 4 weeks,the mice were tested for the electrocardiogram,right ventricular systolic pressure (RSVP),and systemic pressure.The organ indexes and Fulton indexes were measured.ELISA was used to detected inflammation factors in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF),while Masson trichrome stain was used to observe the remodeling of pulmonary arteries. Results Compared with the Normal group,the body weight of mice from other groups increased more slowly.There was little influence on the systemic pressure of each group.The RVSP and heart index of the Hypoxia group significantly increased after 2 weeks.Spleen indexes in the Hypoxia group and Hypoxia+SU5416 group decreased after 3 weeks while lung indexes in these two groups obviously increased after 2,3,and 4 weeks.The remodeling of right ventricle was observed after 4 weeks in the Hypoxia+SU5416 group.There was no significant change in the inflammation factors in BALF. Conclusion The changes of each index of C57 mice modeled by hypoxia for 2 weeks were the most significant.It was suitable for rapid modeling and preliminary evaluation of drug efficacy.Hypoxia combined with the injection of SU5416 for 4 weeks showed stable pathological features of pulmonary hypertension,including the right ventricular remodeling phenomenon,which is suitable for long-term efficacy evaluation and mechanism research of drug candidates.
Objective To observe the effect of Shenhong Tongluo Prescription on aortic plaque in atherosclerotic rats. Methods A total of 80 male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group,model control group,high-dose group,low-dose group and simvastatin group with 16 rats in each group.Atherosclerosis model was prepared in other groups except for sham operation group.After successful modeling,the low-dose group and the high-dose group were given fried-free granule of Shenhong Tongluo Prescription 7.15 and 28.60 g·kg-1·d-1 by gavage (dissolved in 2 mL warm water),respectively.The simvastatin group was given simvastatin 1 mg·kg-1·d-1 by gavage(dissolved in 2 mL warm water).The sham operation group and model control group were given the same volume 0.9% sodium chloride solution once a day for 8 weeks.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method was used for detection of oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL),soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) levels.The hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the histopathological changes in common carotid arteries.The immunohistochemical method to observe intercellular adhesion molecule - 1 (ICAM - 1),tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α),quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method to detect atherosclerotic plaque inside CD40 mRNA and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) mRNA expression level in the plaque. Results Compared with the model control group,the contents of ox-LDL and sCD40L in the high-dose group and the low-dose group decreased ( P<0.05 andP<0.01).And the expressions of ICAM-1 and TNF-α in the plaque were significantly reduced.HE staining results of common carotid artery showed that the intima was relatively smooth and smooth muscle cells arranged relatively regularly after the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine.Accumulation of smooth foam cells and smooth muscle hyperplasia; high dose group can significantly reduce the expression of CD40 mRNA and IL-1β mRNA in plaques of rats (P<0.01). Conclusion Shenhong Tongluo Prescription has good effects on inhibiting inflammatory factors,anti-atherosclerosis and stabilizing atherosclerosis,which may be achieved by interfering with CD40/CD40L signal transduction.
Objective To investigate the relevance of mitochondrial damage,cell apoptosis and deguelin-induced cytotoxicity in 16HBE cells,and to provide reference for the research about deguelin-induced toxicity. Methods The 16HBE cells were treated with 1.56-100 μmol·L -1 deguelin for 24-72 h.CCK-8 assay was used to detect the inhibitory effect of deguelin on proliferation of 16HBE cells.The half inhibition concentration (IC50) values of deguelin on 16HBE cells were calculated to determine the dose of medium-concentration group.The cells were divided into control group(normally cultured 16HBE cells),deguelin low-concentration group (15 μmol·L -1 deguelin),medium-concentration group (30 μmol·L -1 deguelin) and high-concentration group (60 μmol·L -1 deguelin).After treated with different dose of deguelin for 24 hours,16HBE cells were observed under inverted microscope and transmission electron microscope to detect their morphological changes of mitochondria and cell nucleus.GPx and SOD activity were determined by assay kits according the manufacturer's protocol.Flow cytometry was used to detect the levels of MMP and apoptosis. Results Compared with the control group,deguelin can inhibit the proliferation rate of 16HBE cells in concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner (P<0.05).IC50 for 24,48 and 72 h were (32.95±2.39),(21.07±2.21) and (15.46±0.93) μmol·L-1,respectively.Compared with the control group,nuclear apoptosis can be observed.Mitochondrial swelling,cristae disruption and vacuolar degeneration can be observed obviously.GPx activity,SOD activity and the levels of MMP decreased significantly ( P<0.05).The fluorescence intensity in control group,low-concentration group,medium-concentration group and high-concentration group were (57 682±719.1),(51 593±1 525.4),(29 427±578.4) and (23 575±1 366.8),respectively.What's more,cell apoptosis in treated groups increased significantly. Conclusion There may exist a relevance between mitochondrial damage,cell apoptosis and deguelin-induced cytotoxicity of 16HBE cells.
At present,vaccine is the most economical and effective product for human beings to prevent infectious diseases. Since the birth of smallpox vaccine in the 18th century,vaccine research and development has experienced hundreds of years of development,which can be divided into three stages:traditional vaccine, genetic engineering vaccine, and nucleic acid vaccine. With the development of reverse vaccinology and other technologies,vaccine research and development ushered in new broad prospects for development. This paper summarized the history of vaccine development,the characteristics of all kinds of vaccines,the general situation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine research and the prospect of vaccine development.
The International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) is an international pharmaceutical organization that pushes for pharmaceutical development and improves global health. In the past decade. FIP has carried out investigations and studies on pharmacists' participation in vaccine management to analyze the feasibility of promoting pharmacists' participation in vaccine management all over the world. In order to promote the project in the world, this paper briefly introduces FIP and the situation about transforming vaccination in pharmacy project; summarizes the role of pharmacists in the project; overviews its significance to the vaccinated population,medical and public health services and the whole society; and concludes the challenges it facing during its development.
The pharmacists’ participation in vaccination management aims to increase the vaccination rate,and alleviate the overloaded pressure to medical and health system. Currently,pharmacists in most countries are mainly involved in ensuring the safe supply and distribution of vaccines. There are still obstacles to make full use of pharmacists’ professional and technical knowledge to provide vaccination management. This article summarizes the challenges faced by foreign pharmacists in participating in vaccination management,and introduces the strategies adopted by the countries whose pharmacists participated in vaccination management formally,in order to provide a reference for our country's pharmacists to participate in vaccination management.
In the United States and Ireland,pharmacists play an important role not only in providing pharmaceutical care services,but also in vaccine management and vaccination. In Seattle, pharmacists were trained for vaccination for the first time in 1994. In 2011,Ireland began to authorize pharmacists to manage influenza vaccines. In recent years,the pharmacists in Australia,Switzerland,and France have successively carried out vaccine management work. This article introduces the overview of the pharmacists involved in vaccine management and the current status of the American and Irish pharmacist involved in vaccine management,in order to provide a reference of vaccine management and to promote pharmacist to manage vaccine in our country.
Pharmacists are pharmaceutical professional and technical personnel with the ability of drug management. Pharmacists' full participation in vaccine management can improve vaccination coverage and safety. Based on the relevant situation in the United States, Australia and Ireland, this paper introduces the ability requirements in vaccine management and the on-the-job training system for pharmacist,in order to provide a reference of vaccine management for Chinese pharmacists.
One of the factors those affect the vaccination rate is the expenditure of vaccination. The expenditure of vaccination varies from country to country. This paper takes the United States and China as examples to introduce the vaccination expenditure of the two countries, the compensation plan for vaccine injuries, and the professional liability insurance and pharmaceutical service fees for pharmacists in the United States.
Macrophages can be divided into classically activated macrophages and alternately activated macrophages.Macrophages play an indispensable role in maintaining the body's stable state,and participate in the development of various metabolic diseases.This article introduces the classification and function of macrophages,describes the role of macrophages in atherosclerosis,non-alcoholic fatty liver,and type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases,and the commonly used dosage forms of macrophage targeting.We reviews macrophage targeting strategies from three aspects:inhibition of monocyte recruitment,inhibition of macrophage activation,and adjustment of macrophage polarization state;and then discusses the possibility of macrophages treating metabolic diseases.
Rhodiola is a precious medicinal plant in China.Early studies demonstrated that Rhodiola exerts beneficial effects in diabetes mellitus and its complications.Multiple pharmacological mechanisms in the actions of Rhodiola were disclosed, including regulations of inflammatory response,oxidative stress and glucolipid metabolism.In this study,the advances in anti-diabetic effects of Rhodiola were summarized,in order to provide a new insight on exploitation of Rhodiola in future.
Objective To establish a method for the simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in Ampellosis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) W.T.Wang by solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Methods An 80% acetonitrile solution was added to the sample and then extracted with high speed homogeneity.The concentrated liquid supernatant was purified by hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) solid phase extraction column.Acetonitrile-5 mmol·L-1 ammonium acetate (pH=3.0) was used as mobile phase and the C18 column was used to separate the mycotoxins.The samples were detected by electrospray ionization(ESI)in positive/negative modes and multiple reaction monitoring mode,while the quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibrations as the external standard. Results Eleven kinds of mycotoxin exhibited good linear regression with correlation coefficient (r)≥0.99.The limits of detection for all mycotoxins ranged from 1.66-37.50 μg·kg-1,The average recoveries of 11 kinds of mycotoxin at 3 spiked levels (high,medium,low) were 69.82%-118.77% with the relative standard deviations of 0.63%-14.50%. Conclusion This article developed a simple,rapid and practical method which is suitable for the quantitative analysis of 11 kinds of mycotoxin in Ampellosis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) W.T.Wang.
Objective To establish a new method of headspace capillary gas chromatography for determination of eleven residual organic solvents in raw material drug of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride. Methods The separation was achieved on Agilent DB-624 capillary column using temperature programming.Flame ionization detector (FID) was chosen as the detector with the temperature set at 250 ℃ and water was used as the solvent.The analysis of residual solvents was evaluated by external standard method. Results Methanol,ethanol,diethyl ether,acetone,isopropyl alcohol,dichloromethane,acetidin,tetrahydrofuran,cyclohexane,dioxane,and toluene were completely separated.Calibration curves for all components were linear within the studied ranges (r=0.999 1-0.999 9).Average recoveries were in the range of 97.2%-100.3% with RSD 0.6%-2.1%.The limits of quantification were 1.13,1.05,0.09,0.39,0.78,0.43,0.46,0.48,0.68,8.00,and 0.27 μg·mL -1,respectively. Conclusion The method is simple, reliable and accurate; and it can be used for the determination of residual organic solvents in dexmedetomidine hydrochloride.
Objective To explore pharmaceutical care and its effectiveness on the chronic disease management of patients with bronchial asthma. Methods A total of 100 patients with bronchial asthma were included in our study.Based on medication therapy management,we formulated individual pharmaceutical intervention measures for different asthma inpatients.To complete the hospital medical management,the clinical pharmacists sign up with the patients as their family pharmacists,and provide real-time monitoring and companion.The patients’ health records and regular follow-up pattern were established by the joint outpatient service.In stable asthmatics,we use the new media to conduct science popularization,consultation,and health management for patients.The study use the following indicators to access the effects of our management,including:the score of the asthma control test,the patients' medication compliance,the method of medical inhaler,numbers of acute exacerbations of asthma,pulmonary function,and obtain the patient's induced sputum to detect the inflammatory cell classification and inflammatory factor determination results in sputum supernatant,and the medical costs. Results After the intervention,the score of the asthma control test,medication compliance,and the method of inhaled drug were significantly increased (P<0.01).The patients’ lung functions were improved.The number of acute attacks and medical expenses was significantly reduced (P<0.05,P<0.01).The proportion of eosinophils,lymphocyte and neutrophils in sputum were decreased. The concentration of TNF-α was significantly decreased (P<0.01),but the concentration of IL-6 was no significant different. Conclusion Based on the medication treatment management,the model of pharmaceutical care,in chronic bronchial asthma can significantly improve patients' medication compliance, improve asthma control,decrease the numbers of acute exacerbations,lower the medical cost and improve their quality of life.
Objective To study the risk perception of chronic diseases patients in polypharmacy,to explore the influencing factors of patients' risk perception of polypharmacy,and to provide reference and recommendations for the formulation of policies regulating the drug use behavior of patients with chronic diseases. Methods The risk perception scale of polypharmacy for patients with chronic diseases was developed by literature research and expert consultation methods.The stratified random sampling method was adopted to select hospitals,nursing homes,township health centers in Wuhan.And data collection was conducted through on-site investigation.The data was analyzed by SPSS 23.0 software. Results Most chronic diseases patients have low risk perception of polypharmacy;However,there are some patients show a very high level of risk perception in the economy.The study also find that a variety of factors have an impact on the risk perception of chronic disease patients.Overall,age,number of medications taken,and depression status have a greater impact on risk perception of patients.Among them,age is the main influencing factor.The older patient with chronic diseases had the lower the risk perception of polypharmacy. Conclusion Elderly patients with chronic disease show lower levels of risk perception of polypharmacy,relevant authorities may consider formulating relevant policies for elderly chronic diseases patients to regulate the rational drug use behavior of these patients.
Objective To improve the quality of first-aid drug management in hospital wards. Methods A cloud-based collaborative management mode for first-aid drug was established.And we observed and evaluated its characteristics and preliminary results. Results The collaborative management mode constructed with cloud platform technology significantly reduced the problems of incorrect first-aid drug quantity,expired medicines,incomplete identification,and unstable storage locations.It reduced the workload of nurses in managing first-aid drugs,and improved the quality of clinical care. Conclusion The first-aid drug management mode by cloud-based collaborative management improves the management quality and ensures the safety of patients' medication.
Objective To explore the methods for continuous improvement of the prescription review system for outpatient service. Methods The pharmacists in a large hospital in Beijing provided continuous maintenance of the basic rule database of the prescription checking system,such as setting refinements in the indications-usage,administration route-usage,contraindications,repeated medication,and off-label use of drugs.And the drug prescription units in the Health Information System (HIS) system were matched with the limit dose units set by the prescription audit system.The influence of the continuous improvement on the irrational rate of outpatient prescription,the success rate of irrational prescription intervention by the pharmacists via the system,and the false positive rate of the system checking for 6 months was analyzed. Results The pharmacists in the hospital has independently maintained and revised a total of 137 basic rules of the prescription review system over the past six months.The main rule types involved were usage (24.8%), contraindications (21.9%), repeated medication (17.5%) and indications (16.1%).The irrational rate of outpatient prescription dropped from 0.54% to 0.22% (a decrease about 60.0%),and showed a continuous downward trend.The success rate of irrational prescription intervention by the pharmacists via the system increased from 84.0% to 92.0%,and the false positive rate of the system decreased from 78.0% to 45.0%. Conclusion Continuous and independent maintenance,and revision of the basic rule database of the prescription review system is an effective method for pharmacists to improve the quality of the prescription review for outpatient.
Objective To improve the implementation of national essential medicine policy and to provide references for improving the China’s national essential medicine policy. Methods We took Jiangsu Province as an example and calculated the proportion of essential medicines (count in generic name) to medicines covered in national essential medicine list (NEML),the proportion of essential medicines to the total number of medicines allocated in a certain medical institution,and the proportion of sales amount of essential medicines.Furthermore,we used the Mann-Whitney U test to analyze the differences of essential medicine allocation and utilization among medical institutions in various type and grade. Results The proportion of essential medicines allocation and utilization in primary healthcare institutions were 66.93% and 60.66%, respectively.The number of secondary medical institutions were 46.75% and 35.82%.The number of tertiary medical institutions were 40.73% and 30.67%. Conclusion The disparity of essential medicine allocation and utilization in different medical institutions is significant.There is much room for improvement in the allocation and utilization of essential medicines in secondary medical institutions,tertiary medical institutions,specialized hospitals,and cancer hospitals.
Objective To study the impact of non-research and development (non-R&D) innovation on innovation performance in China's pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. Methods First of all,the basic situation of non-R&D innovation expenditures in China's pharmaceutical manufacturing industry from 1995 to 2016 was examined.On this basis of the establishment of panel data,the impact of various non-R&D innovation paths on the innovation performance of China's pharmaceutical manufacturing industry was discussed. Results Regardless of the performance measured by the number of patent applications or the sales revenue of new products, technological transformation,introduction of technology,digestion and absorption,purchase of domestic technology,acquisition of external technology,and overall non-research and innovation are all important for pharmaceutical manufacturing, the innovation performance of the industry has a significant impact, P-value was less than 0.01. Conclusion The unbalanced development characteristics of non-R&D innovation paths in the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry are relatively obvious,showing a tendency to attach importance to technological transformation and ignore external technology acquisition;except for the negative impact of technology introduction on innovation performance,the remaining non-R&D innovation paths are obvious positive promotion effect.