In the context of the global response to the infectious diseases of a novel coronavirus pandemic,in order to ensure the successful holding of the Beijing Winter Olympics,the International Olympic Committee,the International Paralympic Committee,and the Beijing Organizing Committee for the 2022 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games have jointly published two editions of “the Epidemic Prevention Manual for the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics and Winter Paralympic Games”.The manuals provide guidelines of epidemic prevention for stakeholders in the Beijing Winter Olympics.Based on the basic principles of infectious disease prevention and control,this study comprehensively analyzes the epidemic prevention strategies for the Beijing Winter Olympics.This study aims to demonstrate the guiding value of the basic principles of infectious disease prevention and control on the prevention and control of infectious diseases,as well as the scientific and practical nature of the “Epidemic Prevention Manual”.It also provides scientific references for the formulation of epidemic prevention strategies for subsequent international competitions.
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) refers to exercise-induced acute airway constriction.Many studies have shown that the incidence of EIB in athletes is higher than that in the general population,and it is related to the types of sports involved.The incidence of asthma and abnormal lung function is higher in athletes engaged in summer sports such as triathlons and cycling,and winter sports,such as cross-country skiing,ice hockey,Nordic biathlon,and other sports,involved endurance,strength,and speed.For athletes,proactive measures to protect the airway and minimize the possible detrimental effects of exercise on airway function are necessary to achieve optimal performance.EIB can be prevented and treated by pharmacological and non-pharmacological means to reduce the risk of developing the diseases in athletes.The author analyzes the causes of EIB in athletes and proposes relevant prevention and treatment strategies and recommendations,in order to improve the level of awareness and management of EIB and provide health protection for the overall development of winter ice sports.
Winter sports athletes are often exposed to cold environment and they inhale a large amount of relatively cold and dry air which will trigger airway physiology changes and efficiently induce respiratory diseases,including upper respiratory tract infection (URTI),exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB),upper airway cough syndrome (UACS),and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO).These disorders can affect health,athletic abilities,and performance of athletes.This paper summarizes the sports-related respiratory diseases under the exposure to cold environment,such as URTI,EIB,UACS,and EILO.It discusses the prevention and treatment measures based on the unique requirements of athletes' medication,to provide a reference for athletes' preparation strategies and the medical practice of medical personnel.
The 24th Winter Olympic Games was held in China in February,2022.At present,China has formulated the Guidelines for the Use of Commonly Used Drugs for Athletes (2020 edition),and published the Doping Catalogue (2022),to facilitate a better management on the drug use for athletes.With the development of precision medicine,pharmacogenomics has become an essential tool to guide personalized drug use and evaluate drug efficacy and the risk of severe adverse reactions.Pharmacogenomics combined with genetic information to guide clinical rational drug use is one of the emerging applications of precision medicine.In this paper,the gene loci of 14 commonly used drugs for athletes,such as antiviral drugs (ribavirin),local anesthetics (lidocaine and ropivacaine),nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin,ibuprofen,and meloxicam),cardiovascular drugs (losartan,valsartan,captopril,amlodipine,nifedipine,and atorvastatin calcium tablet),digestive system drugs (omeprazole,pantoprazole) were reviewed.The levels of the evidence for clinical application of pharmacogenomics in these 14 drugs are summarized,to provide a relatively comprehensive reference basis for personalized drug use for athletes.
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is recognized as a biomarker of airway inflammation and is widely used in the field of chronic respiratory diseases. Pulmonary and critical care medicine(PCCM) pharmaceutical service clinic is a new type of respiratory service clinic to manage patients with chronic respiratory diseases.This paper summarizes the research progress of FeNO in the treatment and management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases,especially the prediction of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) treatment response,the adjustment of treatment plan and the evaluation of disease control level,in order to provide new ideas and strategies for pharmaceutical personnel to participate in the management of respiratory airway inflammatory diseases.
Based on the CICARE communication model in the United States,combined with the particularity of the diseases of patients with Process in Cough and Wheeze Pharmaceutical Care Clinic(CWPC) and the practical experience of pharmacists in providing pharmaceutical care,a pharmacist-patient communication process in line with CWPC of our country was established,and effective communication skills were used to CICARE communication process,including six steps: polite connection,complete introduction,professional communication,careful asking,patient response and proper exit,which aimed to improve the efficiency of pharmaceutical care and the ability to prevent pharmacis-patient disputes.This communication process helps pharmacists to establish a good communication relationship with patients,provides standardized and process-based guidance for pharmacists and patients with chronic cough and wheeze,and lays a practical foundation for in-depth development of full-process and individualized pharmaceutical care.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the critical microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus,and the incidence is still increasing worldwide.DN is a significant cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.At present,drugs in the clinical treatments for DN are mainly antihypertensive and hypoglycemic drugs.There are several drugs targeting the pathogenesis of DN in the clinical trial stage,but many of them have poor efficacy or adverse effects.Studies have shown that Rhein,a natural anthraquinone compound isolated and purified from Chinese medicine rhubarb,has a potential therapeutic effect on DN,and its mode of action is a complex result of multiple targets and pathways.The mechanism of action of Rhein on DN includes anti-inflammatory and antioxidant stress,and inhibits transforming growth factor activity (TGF-β1).These combined effects are the new strategy for the treatment of DN.This article reviews the latest research progresses on the effects and mechanisms of Rhein in DN,analyzes the therapeutic prospects of Rhein on DN,and provides theoretical and scientific basis for the further development of Rhein.
Immunotherapy has brought a new horizon to the clinical treatment of cancers.In the treatment of tumor,Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has the effects of promoting the survival of patients with cancers,preventing tumor metastasis and recurrence,and improving the quality of life in cancer treatment.“Fuzheng Quxie” or “Strengthening the body resistance to eliminate pathogenic factors” highly summarizes the anti-tumor mechanism of TCM,and regulating immunity is the feature and advantage of TCM.In the era of cancer immunotherapy,taking full advantage of anti-tumor effects of TCM in regulating immunity is of great significance for fully inheriting and mining the essence of TCM,improving clinical efficacy and patients benefit.This article reviews recent studies on the regulation of lung cancer immunotherapy by TCM,and therefore provides a reference for the research on immunotherapy of lung cancer.
Biomedicine industry,as a key field that gains national cultivation and development,has been included in the national strategic emerging industry cluster development projects in China.Industrial cluster is an important carrier to promote the innovation and development of biomedical industry,which is of great significance to the realization of healthy China strategy.Based on the perspective of industrial cluster,this paper comprehensively analyzes the role of industrial cluster in the innovation and development of biomedical industry.And combined with the development status and deficiencies of biomedical industry clusters in China,corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward for the improvement of innovation capacity,in order to provide reference to strengthen the international competitiveness of China's biomedical industry in science & technology and economy.