Objective To evaluate and analyze the quality of clinical practice guidelines on the administration of iodinated contrast medium for diabetes patients receiving metformin to give clinicians suggestions. Methods Relevant guidelines on the risk of lactic acidosis after administration of iodinated contrast medium for diabetes patients receiving metformin were published until November 28, 2021.They were identified from PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang, and websites of guidelines.Guidelines were comprehensively screened by two researchers, and evaluated based on the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE)Ⅱinstrument, and data were independently extracted by four researchers. Results A total of seven guidelines were included for the quality appraisal by using the AGREEⅡinstrument.The Royal College of Radiology guidelines of Australia and New Zealand had the highest scores.Among the domains of AGREE Ⅱ, domains I (scope and purpose) and IV (clarity of presentation) scored the highest, with a minimum of domain V (applicability).Inconsistent recommendations for inclusion in guidelines for iodine contrast screening in patients with type 2 diabetes taking metformin.For patients with eGFR>60 mL·min·(1.73 m2)-1 receiving contrast medium, six guidelines clearly stated that there is no need to discontinue metformin.There are considerable differences in the recommendations of patients with eGFR of 30-60 mL·min·(1.73 m2)-1 in different guidelines.In the recommendations of patients with eGFR<30 mL·min·(1.73 m2)-1, only three guidelines provided recommendations. Conclusion There are significant differences in the recommendations of clinical practice guidelines on the recommendation of administration of iodinated contrast medium for diabetes patients receiving metformin.In addition, the quality of some guidelines needs to be improved.Therefore, future development of delirium guidelines should follow the methodology of guideline development, update, or adjustment and be dedicated to every domain, especially the domain of application.
Nano-based drug delivery system has exhibited promising potential intumor precision medicine.However, organic or inorganic synthetic nanocarriers have several problems, such as being hard to prepare, easily recognized and eliminated by the body's immune system, thereby limiting clinical application.Inspired by natural biological systems, cell membrane-derived biomimetic drug delivery systems have aroused growing attention in recent years.With the advantages of "autologous" nature and "artificial" functional nanocarrier, these biomimetic nanoparticles can integrate their significant property of cancer target, low immunogenicity, and more prolonged blood circulation.In this paper, we summarize and discuss three aspects including the experimental methodology of cell membrane-derived nanoparticles, the construction of biomimetic nano drug delivery platforms, and their application in targeted cancer therapy, immunotherapy, and photothermal therapy, which is based on the research progress of nanomedicine and cell membrane biomimetic technology in the field of tumor treatment.Finally, future development has prospected.
The hypoxia environment at high altitudes has an important effect on human sleep quality.People who are new to the plateau quickly or have lived there for a long time can have sleep disorders.The plateau influence on sleep mainly includes the decrease of slow wave sleep, the destruction of sleep continuity, and some physiological indexes, such as blood oxygen saturation, respiration, and blood pressure during sleep.Besides the physical techniques to improve sleep quality, such as acupuncture and transcranial micro pulse stimulation, the preventive and therapeutic effects of drugs are very important.The review summarizes the and mechanisms of sleep disorders, the preventive and therapeutic drugs.It will provide consultancy for the efficient preventive and therapeutic effects to alleviate sleep disorders in the plateau.