In recent years,many clinically applied drugs,as well as drug candidates that had been or were in preclinical or clinical trials,had been redeveloped for new indications.The success of repurposing of a series of famous drugs had promoted the repurposing developments.In the previous article,the drug repurposing study based on clinical treatment needs had been discussed.In this paper,we reviewed drug repurposing studies based on the discovery of new indications.We reviewed repurposing strategies,including the discovery of new indications based on the existing basic action mechanism of drugs,the discovery of new indications based on the side effects of drugs,and the discovery of new indications based on the new action mechanism of drugs.
With the deep recognition of SARS-CoV-2 and for doing well in the follow-up work,the diagnosis and treatment was also updated continuously. This article aimed to interpret《The diagnosis and treatment plan for SARS-CoV-2(The tenth trial edition)》,and compared it with the ninth edition. We try to review the key points of this updated edition,in order to serve for clinical practice.
Objective To observe the protective effect of compound Qixiong granules on arthritis in rats,and to explore its mechanism. Methods Seventy Wistar rats were randomly divided into the normal control group,model control group,compound Qixiong granules low, medium, high dose group,methotrexate group,and tripterygium wilfordii glycosides group.Rats in each group were established arthritis by completing Freund's adjuvant except for the normal control group.Two weeks after establishing the model,the normal control group and the model control group were given 0.9% of sodium chloride solution by gavage,and the remaining groups were given the corresponding drugs,recorded and compared alteration in toe thickness of rats in each group before modeling,after modeling two weeks and three weeks after administration.Rats were sacrificed under anesthesia,knee joint synovial tissue was collected,and an immunohistochemical method was used to detect and compare the average optical density of TLR7 and IRAK2 in synovial tissue of each group.The expression of TLR7 and IRAK2 in the synovial tissue of each group was detected and compared by Western blotting (WB). Results Compared with the normal control group,the other groups of rats were significantly swollen after the completion of modeling(P<0.05).After three weeks of administration,compared with the model control group,the improvement of foot swelling in the high-dose compound Qixiong granule group was similar to that in the methotrexate group and better than that in the small and medium-dose compound Qixiong granule groups and tripterygium wilfordii glycosides group(P<0.05).The average absorbance of TLR7 and IRAK2 in the high-dose compound Qixiong granule group was significantly lower than that in low-dose and medium-dose compound Qixiong granule groups and Tripterygium wilfordii glycosides group(P<0.05).The protein expression of TLR7 and IRAK2 in the high-dose compound Qixiong granule group was significantly lower than that in the low-dose and medium-dose compound Qixiong granule groups and Tripterygium wilfordii glycosides group(P<0.05). Conclusion Compound Qixiong granules can effectively relieve RA,which may play a therapeutic role by inhibiting TLR7 and IRAK2.
Objective To establish a grade evaluation method of artemisiae argyi folium based on the analysis of the main active components by principal component analysis (PCA) method. Methods Fourteen batches of artemisiae argyi folium were collected. The components of its volatile oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS),and the flavonoids were analyzed by liquid chromatography / quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOFMS).The most common components with higher relative content in the volatile and flavonoid active components were selected as the independent variables for logistic modeling.The PCA analysis was performed with the measured values of the contents of each independent variable, and a logistic binary classification algorithm was used to carry out association analysis on each component.Then a PCA-logistic regression analysis method for the grade evaluation of artemisiae argyi folium was established. Results Eucalyptol and borneol in volatile components,eupatilin and jaceosidin in flavonoids were selected as logistic modeling independent variables.The contents of eucalyptol and borneol were between 0.052%-0.092% and 0.021%-0.031%, respectively.The contents of eupatilin and jaceosidin were between 0.189%-0.324% and 0.068%-0.088%, respectively.The binary logistic regression analysis results showed that 14 batches of artemisiae argyi folium were divided into 4 grades,the grade probability of each batches of artemisiae argyi foliumi was higher 95%.Among the 14 batches, five batches were evaluated excellent, four were good,two were moderate, and three were poor. Conclusion Based on PCA-Logistic regression analysis, a new method was preliminarily constructed for the grade evaluation of different batches of artemisiae argyi folium,which could provide technical support for constructing the grade evaluation standard of artemisiae argyi folium.
Objective To establish a molecular method for the authentication of Pinellia ternate and its common adulterants Pinellia pedatisecta and Pinellia cordata based on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA),and to provide a basis for quality control of Pinellia ternate medicinal materials. Methods Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences in the nuclear genome of Pinellia Tenore were downloaded from the Genbank database and then aligned using MEGA 6.05.Species-specific MLPA probes were designed after finding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the ITS fragments of Pinellia ternate,Pinellia pedatisecta and Pinellia cordata. After the MLPA reaction,the amplification products were analyzed by the melting curve method. Results DNAs and species-specific MLPA probes from Pinellia ternate,Pinellia pedatisecta and Pinellia cordata samples can produce a single melting peak at 84.84,82.76 and 80.14 ℃,respectively,indicating that the probe has good specificity.The established probes system can not only identify 0.1 ng of template DNA,but also can detect Pinellia ternate samples mixed with 1% Pinellia pedatisecta or Pinellia cordata. The samples collected from the market were identified with accurate results and high sensitivity. Conclusion The MLPA method established in this study can accurately identify Pinellia ternate,Pinellia pedatisecta,and Pinellia cordata,which has the characteristics of strong specificity and high sensitivity,and can provide technical support for the quality control of Pinellia ternate medicinal materials.
Objective To achieve rapid identification and mutual adulteration detection of Acorus tatarinowii and Acorus calamus using RNase H-dependent PCR (rhPCR) amplification combined with a melting curve. Methods By aligning and analyzing the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences of Acorus tatarinowii and Acorus calamus to search for stable single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites,rhPCR-specific amplification primers were designed,and then identification was according to the different melting temperature (Tm) of the amplification products.The specificity of the primers,and optimal mixed primer ratio were screened,and the sensitivity,mixing detection limits,and applicability of the method was examined too. Results The designed specific primers had good specificity,and the amplification products of Acorus tatarinowii and Acorus calamus could produce a single specific melting curve peak of (89.4±0.2) ℃ and (87.9±0.2) ℃,respectively.The established method had high sensitivity,and DNA detection limits were 0.1 ng.The mixing detection limits for Acorus tatarinowii and Acorus calamus were 10% of the samples.A total of 28 samples were tested,of which 16 samples were Acorus tatarinowii and 12 samples were Acorus calamus,and the test results were consistent with the DNA barcode. Conclusion The method based on RNaseH-dependent PCR amplification combined with a melting curve can effectively identify and detect mutual adulteration of Acorus tatarinowii and Acorus calamus,which is effective for the quality control of Chinese herbal medicines.
Objective To identify Spatholobus suberectus and three kinds of its common adulterations with molecular biology techniques. Methods Specific probes were designed according to different ITS2 sequences of four species.Multiple linked probe amplification (MLPA) technology and high resolution melting (HRM) curve technology were used to identify Spatholobus suberectus and its common adulterants,Sargentodoxa cuneate,Mucuna birdwoodiana,or Callerya dielsiana,according to the difference of specific probe melting temperature (Tm). Results The specific probe Tm values of the four species were (87.0±0.2) ℃ for Spatholobus suberectus,(82.8±0.2) ℃ for Sargentodoxa cuneate,(85.4±0.2) ℃ for Mucuna birdwoodiana,and (80.1±0.2) ℃ for Callerya dielsiana,respectively.In probe-specific investigations,the cross-reactive group and the blank group did not produce melting peaks,indicating that the probes have good specificity.The established method can be used for the detection of 1.0 ng of template DNA,and can effectively detect 5% of Sargentodoxa cuneate,Mucuna birdwoodiana and Callerya dielsiana mixed in Spatholobus suberectus. Conclusion The established method for identifying Spatholobus suberectus and its adulterants based on MLPA-HRM technology has high sensitivity,strong specificity and good stability,which can effectively solve the problems of complex plant sources and difficult identification of adulterants in the market.
Objective To establish an HPLC method to determine four components of Inonotus obliquus,to compare the content differences of the four components in different parts,and evaluate the quality of Inonotus obliquus. Methods The contents of trametenolic acid, Inotodiol,ergosterol,and lanosterol of Inonotus obliquus were determined by the HPLC method,the contents of four components in the dark brown shell and yellow internal context of Inonotus obliquus were compared.The analysis was performed on an Agilent 5 TC-C18 column(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm), and the column temperature was 30 ℃.The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water at a flow rate of 1 mL·min-1 in a gradient elution manner.The detector wavelength was set at 203,208 nm.SPSS.23.0 software was used for cluster analysis of Inonotus obliquus from different habitats,statistical analysis was made on the content difference between the two parts. Results The linearity of the four components was good in the range of their mass concentration (r≥0.999 7);the average recoveries were 101.79%,102.96%,101.12% and 101.37%;with RSDs of 2.35%,2.25%,2.27% and 2.13%(n=6);RSDs of precision,repeatability, and stability (24 h) tests were all less than 3.0% (n= 6),respectively.The contents of trametenolic acid, inotodiol, ergosterol and lanosterol in 23 batches of Inotodiol obliquus were 0.383 0-3.523 4,0.741 2-6.490 3,0.128 8-0.699 7,0.628 9-4.053 3 mg·g-1,respectively.The 23 batches of samples could be divided into three categories by cluster analysis.The contents of ergosterol and lanosterol in the yellow internal context of Inonotus obliquus were higher than those in the dark brown shell, but there was no significant difference in the contents of trametenolic acid and Inonotol between the internal and external parts of Inonotus obliquus. Conclusion The content determination method has good repeatability,stability and operability, which can provide reference for the quality control of Inonotus obliquus.
Objective To study the transfer rates of four effective components with different water solubility in Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD),and to provide the basis for its quality control research and clinical application. Methods Three kinds of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions were established to determine the contents of ephedrine hydrochloride,pseudoephedrine hydrochloride,amygdalin and baicalin in QFPDD with number S1-S10,and the contents of these four components in the decoction pieces were determined.The transfer rate of four components from decoction pieces to QFPDD was calculated,and the decoction quality control index components were screened in these four components. Results The transfer rate of ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride from decoction pieces to QFPDD was 40.99%-52.01%.The transfer rate of amygdalin from decoction pieces to QFPDD was 13.78%-27.68%.The transfer rate of baicalin from decoction pieces to QFPDD was 2.67%-6.35%.The transfer rate of the four components was statistically significant (P<0.05).The contents of the four components in QFPPD were within the safe and effective range.Ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride can be used as indicators for quality control of QFPDD. Conclusion This study provided a reference for the quality control and clinical application of QFPDD.
The prescription review of traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces is an essential part of the dispensing process.However,the current dispensing mode has the problems of low quality and efficiency in prescription review which seriously restricts the dispensing processes.Therefore,new review technologies and methods are urgently needed to solve the above problems.This paper comprehensively sorted and analyzed the new technologies and methods for the review of traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces dispensing,and proposed a new idea of using the intelligent dispensing system,3D structure,and autonomous identification technology for the dispensing of traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces.It is conducive to ensure the dispensing quality of traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces,to improve the efficiency of dispensing,and to promote the modernization process of the dispensing of traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces.
The physical properties of Chinese herbal pieces have a great impact on the developing Chinese herbal medicine dispensing.With the rapid development of modern technology,the application of physical properties of Chinese herbal pieces needs to meet the development needs of the times.This paper discussed the definition and content of the physical properties of Chinese herbal pieces,analyzed the physical properties factors that affect the automatic dispensing of Chinese herbal pieces,and pointed out that the use of modern technical means to change and apply the critical physical properties of Chinese herbal pieces that affect the automatic dispensing,to provide ideas and support for improving the dispensing efficiency of Chinese herbal pieces,and to promote the modern development of Chinese herbal pieces dispensing.
Prescription coping Chinese herbal decoction pieces is essential to traditional Chinese medicine dispensing.The accuracy of prescription drugs directly impacts the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions.However,there were many problems in the development of prescription coping,and there was an inconsistency between prescription coping and the actual payment of medicines.With the development of hospital information,small packages of traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces, and single dose of traditional Chinese medicine formula granule was widely used in clinical practice,and the prescription of traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces became history.The role of prescription coping has gradually shifted to the "prescription should be prescribed". Using standardized traditional Chinese medicine prescription with the name of prescription was the fundamental way to solve the problem of prescription coping,which could not only help the doctor to prescribe more accurately and disconnect the purpose of medication and the actual payment,but also made medicines safer and more effective for patients.
The prescription review of Chinese herbal pieces is not only an important part of the dispensing of Chinese herbal pieces but also an important means to promote the rational application of Chinese herbal pieces.The “Prescription Review Specification of Medical Institutions” has clarified the importance of prescription review and standardized the basis for prescription review of Chinese and Western medicine.However,compared with the diversified review basis such as drug instructions and clinical guiding principles of Western medicine, the prescription review basis of traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces is only the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China,relevant works of traditional Chinese medicine and some laws and regulations.It is far from meeting the needs of clinical audit.On June 30,2021,China Association of Chinese Medicine issued a group standard-Specification for the clinical application of traditional Chinese Herbal Pieces indicating that a new reference basis has been added to the prescription review of decoction pieces of traditional Chinese medicine.According to the relevant contents of the clinical application standard of Chinese herbal pieces, this paper reviewed the prescription of Chinese herbal pieces,and explored the guiding role of the new standard on the prescription review of Chinese herbal pieces in order to provide a reference for further development of the prescription review of Chinese herbal pieces.
Toxic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays an important role in clinical practice,but adverse events happen frequently caused by improper use or improper management.The dispensing of decoction pieces has been an important part of TCM since ancient times.The standardized management of dispensing toxic TCM decoction pieces in medical institution has important implications for ensuring clinical effectiveness and safety.This paper discussed the standardized management of the managed items,toxicity grading,and management measures to provide a reference for the safe,effective and reasonable use of toxic TCM.
Bacteria are always thought to be pathogens that cause many diseases.However,there are a large number of bacteria in the human body,which are generally non-pathogenic and even play a role in protecting the health of the host,such as the intestinal flora.Therefore,bacteria can be engineered with proper methods and acquire specific properties to treat different diseases.Due to the tumor microenvironment features hypoxia and immuno suppression,some facultative or obligate anaerobe can preferentially colonize into solid tumors,which provides a synthetic biological approach to targeted cancer therapy.This review focused on recent developments of engineered bacteria for tumor treatment,including the reports of bacterial virulence reduction and bacterial efficacy enhancement,which aimed to acquire ideal bacteria strains to meet the various tumor treatment needs.This paper summarized some applications of anti-tumor bacteria engineered by synthetic biological methods.These applications contributed to developing new bacteria-mediated tumor treatment strategies,which complement chemotherapy,immunotherapy,photothermal therapy,gene therapy and other methods.
The liposome drug could act its therapeutic effect in vivo only when released from liposome.The release process could be stimulated in vivo.The commonly used analysis methods of liposome release behavior reported in the literature include sampling separation method,dialysis method,flow cell method,Franz diffusion cell method,and other optimized methods.Each evaluation method has specific advantages and application limitations.However,the Chinese Pharmacopoeia does not contain the evaluation method of in vitro release of liposome,which hinders the application of liposome.Therefore,it is an urgent problem to establish an in vitro release method with good reproducibility,strong operability,and high standardization in the development of liposome.According to the inherent properties of liposome,the research status and practical application of in vitro release behavior analysis methods of liposome in recent years were summarized,and the characteristics of each release method were briefly analyzed.It provided a reference for developing and improving in vitro release behavior analysis methods of liposome.
As the understanding of tumors and the treatment became more refined,the quantity and cost of antineoplastic intravenous chemotherapy drugs rised to a certain level,which became a tremendous strain on the patient's family and the health insurance system.The amount of intravenous chemotherapy drugs left in the vial after use also increased with the amount used,leading to a significant amount of drug waste.A relatively simple strategy to reduce drug waste might significantly reduce its impact on drug costs and result in substantial cost savings.Because the waste reduction strategy would neither limit the use of specific drugs nor reduce the quality of care,it had become an attractive cost-saving strategy abroad.Therefore,to reduce the waste of intravenous chemotherapy drugs in China,to decrease the burden on patients,and to save healthcare resources,this paper analyzed the causes of chemotherapy drug waste and proposed short-term and feasible strategies from multiple perspectives.
Objective To measure the thermodynamic stability of human fibrinogen products with the multifunctional protein stability analyzer and to analyze the correlation between the stability and purity results. Methods The multifunctional protein stability analyzer was used to measure 21 samples from 7 enterprises across the country.The purity of the samples was measured by an automatic Kjeldahl nitrogen analyzer.The HPSEC-MALLS was used to determine the component distribution of samples with the highest and lowest purity. Results The thermodynamic stability of the samples from the 7 enterprises was quite different.The Tm value of the samples was from 51.20 ℃ to 53.31 ℃;the purity of the 21 samples was from 80.3% to 95.9%;the result of the purity was significantly correlated with the Tm value,with the correlation coefficient 0.729,P<0.05.The samples of enterprise F had the best thermodynamic stability,less oligomers,and the highest purity;while the products of enterprise A had the worst thermodynamic stability,more oligomers,and the lowest purity. Conclusion The multifunctional protein stability analyzer can detecd the purity and stability of the samples,providing reference data for the screening of human fibrinogen product protective agents and the optimization of the production process.It also helps perform preliminary analysis on the quality of products from different enterprises with simple operation,swift detection,and high detection efficiency.
Objective To develop and verify a method for determining residual sodium deoxycholate in the bulk of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with charge aerosol detection (CAD). Methods An Agilent SB-C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm) with a column temperature of 30 ℃ was adopted.The mobile phase was composed of water containing 1% formic acid and acetonitrile containing 1% formic acid,while the gradient eluted at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1.The injection volume was 50 μL.The evaporating temperature of CAD was 60 ℃,while the collection rate was 10 Hz,and the filter constant was 3.6 s. Results Any other peaks were separated entirely from the peak of sodium deoxycholate and showed no interference with the determination result.The linear range of sodium deoxycholate was 0.475-47.50 μg·mL-1,with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.999 0.The average results of spike recovery tests of sodium deoxycholate content in two vaccines were 100.1% and 100.6%,respectively.The LOQ and LOD were about 0.24 μg·mL-1 and 0.12 μg·mL-1,respectively. Conclusion The developed method has reasonable specificity and high sensitivity.Moreover,it was convenient and rapid,suitable for determining residual sodium deoxycholate in the bulk of the vaccine.
Objective To establish a non-derivative HPLC method for determining glycine and methionine in compound glycyrrhizin capsules directly. Methods Determination of content was measured using a SHIM-PACK AMINO-NA (6 mm×100 mm,5 μm) column.The mobile phase was 0.3 mol·L-1 sodium dihydrogen phosphate-absolute ethyl alcohol (95:5).The detection wavelength was 205 nm.The flow rate was 0.4 mL·min-1.The dissolution medium of determination of dissolution was water.Rotating basket method was used with the speed of 100 r·min-1.The dissolution medium was taken and analyzed by HPLC under the content determination method at 45 min. Results The average recovery was 99.3% (RSD=0.7%) of glycine,100.7% (RSD=0.2%) of methionine,and the method for determination of glycine and methionine had good linearities.The average recovery was 99.7% (RSD=0.7%) of glycine and 100.3% (RSD=0.3%) of methionine.The solution stabilized within 12 hours.The average dissolution from eleven batches was>90% at 45 min. Conclusion The method is simple,accurate,and environmentally friendly.It provides a scientific basis for content and dissolution determination of compound glycyrrhizin capsules in the next revision of Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China.
Objective To establish a method for determining the related substances of travoprost in travoprost and timolol maleate eye drops by HPLC. Methods The determination was performed on Phenomenex LUNA phenyl-hexyl column(3.0 mm×150 mm,3 μm)with gradient elution using 20 mmol·L-1 sodium heptane sulfonate solution(adjusted to pH 2.5 with phosphoric acid)as mobile phase A,methanol as mobile phase B and acetonitrile as mobile phase C,the detection wavelength was 220 nm;the temperature of the column was 40 ℃;the flow rate was 0.5 mL·min-1. Results Under the optimized condition of HPLC chromatography,an excellent separation was achieved for travoprost and the impurities.The calibration curves for travoprost,travoprost related compound A,15-epi diastereomer,5,6-trans isomer and 15-keto derivative revealed good linearities over the range of 0.02-219.29 μg·mL-1(r=1.000 0),0.02-3.10 μg·mL-1(r=0.999 9),0.02-3.87 μg·mL-1(r=1.000 0),0.02-4.37 μg·mL-1(r=1.000 0),0.02-3.98 μg·mL-1(r=0.999 9),respectively.The LODs of the above compounds were 2,1,2,2 and 2 ng,respectively.The average recoveries of travoprost was 99.7%(RSD=0.60%). Conclusion The method is specific,accurate and sensitive,which can be used for the determination of travoprost and timolol maleate eye drops and related substances of travoprost in travoprost and timolol maleate eye drops
Objective To evaluate the efficacy,safety,and economy of canagliflozin based on rapid health technology assessment (HTA) to provide an evidence-based basis for clinical decision. Methods Core Chinese and English databases were searched systematically.The results were qualitatively analyzed after two interviewers screened the literature dependently,extracted the data, and evaluated the quality. Results Two health technology assessment reports,23 systematic reviews/meta-analyses,and 16 economic studies were included.The results suggested that canagliflozin reduced HbA1C、body weight, and blood pressure compared with placebo.Canagliflozin also demonstrated benefits on cardiovascular and renal outcomes,it can significantly reduce MACEs and heart failure incidence compared to placebo.The relative risk of the primary outcome was 30% lower in the canagliflozin group than the placebo group.Safety studies showed that canagliflozin was generally well tolerated,except for high incidence of genital mycotic infection and osmotic diuretic-related adverse events.Domestic economic research indicated that canagliflozin was more cost-effective in patients at high risk for cardiovascular or kidney disease. Conclusion Canagliflozin is effective and safe in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.Whether it is a more cost-effective option compared to other anti-diabetes therapies needs further research.
Objective To explore the application of sedation and analgesia drugs,and to improve medication safety in the ICU. Methods Clinical pharmacist assisted the physician in analyzing and evaluating a case with respiratory depression twice during extubation and carried out pharmaceutical care for the patient. Results The respiratory depressions may relate to excessive dosage of remifentanil and improper application of opioid receptor antagonists.Under the guidance of the clinical pharmacist,sedative and analgesic drugs were adjusted,and the patient was successfully extubated without further respiratory depression. Conclusion Clinical pharmacist participated in the analysis and treatment of respiratory depression,provided full pharmaceutical care,and promoted medication safety in the ICU.
Objective To analyze the prescription of celecoxib potential adverse drug interactions(pADIs)and to promote rational drug use. Methods Outpatient prescriptions of using celecoxib in combination with other drugs were surveyed from January 1,2020 to December 31,2020 through the third people's hospital of Bengbu rational drug software system.And pADIs were identified and classified into categories of potential clinical outcomes. Results A total of 705 prescriptions of celecoxib capsules in combination with other drugs were collected and enrolled.There were 169 prescriptions for pADIs,which occurred 213 times for pADIs.Potential adverse drugs interacting with celecoxib capsules were mainly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),leflunomide,and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers(ARBs).The severity of interaction between celecoxib and NSAIDs was determined by “Contraindications”. Conclusion There were pADIs between celecoxib capsules and other drugs in our hospital.Therefore,it is necessary to strengthen risk training of celecoxib capsules pADIs,set medication rules through rational drug use software,and give interception or warning respectively in the electronic prescription window of doctor workstation to reduce medication risk.
Objective To analyze and discuss the national drug sampling and testing plan based on the problem-oriented approach and to put forward feasible optimization measures and suggestions to promote the innovation of drug sampling management mode. Methods This article introduced the principles,methods,procedures,and existing problems of the national drug sampling and testing plan,and discussed how to carry out scientific and reasonable design planning for the selection principle of varieties,the classification of sampling levels,the design of special inspection projects,and the purchase of samples. Results Integrated risk management concept was introduced into variety selection,to explore accurate sampling mode.The regulatory priorities were determined through in-depth data mining to establish a periodic review mechanism and dynamically update the sampling scheme. Conclusion Drug quality sampling inspection is one of the important means of post-marketing supervision.It is necessary to start from the top-level design,formulate a scientific and reasonable plan based on problem orientation,to improve the efficiency of drug sampling,and provide technical support for strengthening drug supervision.
In the era of rapid development of information technology,hospitals and health services are rapidly breaking through time and space constraints.The increasing health demand of the people and the inadequate supply of special hospital self-made preparations are one of the contradictions of the people's medical security.The pharmaceutical service of special hospital self-made preparations under the medical care without time and space has become an important strategy to solve the difficulty and high cost of medical treatment.With the national policy support of the "Internet + Medical Service" in recent years,various kinds of internet hospitals have developed rapidly.By analyzing relevant policies and based on the practice of " Internet hospital and special self-made preparation service" of our hospital,this paper discusses the characteristic hospital preparation based on contradiction theory and provides an experience for the sustainable development of hospital preparation of "Internet hospital" in China.